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Quality attributes of dark chocolate produced from Vietnamese cocoa liquors

(2016) JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY. 39(4). p.311-322
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Abstract
This study provides the quality aspects of Vietnamese (VN) dark chocolates produced by cocoa liquors exhibiting different degrees of acidity. Hereto, the impact of preconching the highly acidic cocoa liquors was investigated. Results show that three out of four VN chocolates attained comparable solid fat content at 35C, particle sizes and flow properties to a Ghanaian reference, ensuring a similar volatile release and taste perception. Principal component analysis of the aroma compounds obtained using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass-spectrometry clustered the chocolates into three groups: those from GH and VN liquor with intermediate acidity, those from preconched VN liquors and that from highly acidic VN liquor. A more detailed interpretation of the flavor profile revealed that VN chocolates exhibit more profound acidic, fruity and flowery aroma. Furthermore, liquor preconching positively affected chocolate flow and decreased volatile acids, however, partly removed both highly and less volatile, desired aroma compounds. Practical Applications: As the demand and deficit for chocolate are increasing worldwide, the hunt for additional high-quality cocoa resources will bring added value for both farmers and chocolate industry. Vietnamese (VN) cocoa, as a newcomer, is recently expanding its global market potential, however, how its quality can be positioned in the world supply is not assessed yet. The results of this study could reveal the applicability of VN cocoa liquors varying in acidity for the production of high-quality dark chocolates with specific aroma notes. However, the typical high acidity in Southeast Asian cocoa is regarded as detrimental flavor attribute, thus inspiring this work to study whether cocoa liquor preconching could improve the overall aroma as well as mouthfeel perception.
Keywords
PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION, KEY AROMA COMPOUNDS, DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, CONCHING CONDITIONS, FERMENTATION METHOD, DIFFERENT ORIGINS, MILK CHOCOLATE

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Citation

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Chicago
Tran, Diem Phuong, Jim Van Durme, Davy Van de Walle, Ann de Winne, Claudia Delbaere, Nathalie de Clercq, Thi Thanh Que Phan, Cat-Hanh Nguyen Phuc, Dung Nhan Tran, and Koen Dewettinck. 2016. “Quality Attributes of Dark Chocolate Produced from Vietnamese Cocoa Liquors.” Journal of Food Quality 39 (4): 311–322.
APA
Tran, D. P., Van Durme, J., Van de Walle, D., de Winne, A., Delbaere, C., de Clercq, N., Phan, T. T. Q., et al. (2016). Quality attributes of dark chocolate produced from Vietnamese cocoa liquors. JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, 39(4), 311–322.
Vancouver
1.
Tran DP, Van Durme J, Van de Walle D, de Winne A, Delbaere C, de Clercq N, et al. Quality attributes of dark chocolate produced from Vietnamese cocoa liquors. JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY. 2016;39(4):311–22.
MLA
Tran, Diem Phuong, Jim Van Durme, Davy Van de Walle, et al. “Quality Attributes of Dark Chocolate Produced from Vietnamese Cocoa Liquors.” JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY 39.4 (2016): 311–322. Print.
@article{7241092,
  abstract     = {This study provides the quality aspects of Vietnamese (VN) dark chocolates produced by cocoa liquors exhibiting different degrees of acidity. Hereto, the impact of preconching the highly acidic cocoa liquors was investigated. Results show that three out of four VN chocolates attained comparable solid fat content at 35C, particle sizes and flow properties to a Ghanaian reference, ensuring a similar volatile release and taste perception. Principal component analysis of the aroma compounds obtained using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass-spectrometry clustered the chocolates into three groups: those from GH and VN liquor with intermediate acidity, those from preconched VN liquors and that from highly acidic VN liquor. A more detailed interpretation of the flavor profile revealed that VN chocolates exhibit more profound acidic, fruity and flowery aroma. Furthermore, liquor preconching positively affected chocolate flow and decreased volatile acids, however, partly removed both highly and less volatile, desired aroma compounds. 
Practical Applications: As the demand and deficit for chocolate are increasing worldwide, the hunt for additional high-quality cocoa resources will bring added value for both farmers and chocolate industry. Vietnamese (VN) cocoa, as a newcomer, is recently expanding its global market potential, however, how its quality can be positioned in the world supply is not assessed yet. The results of this study could reveal the applicability of VN cocoa liquors varying in acidity for the production of high-quality dark chocolates with specific aroma notes. However, the typical high acidity in Southeast Asian cocoa is regarded as detrimental flavor attribute, thus inspiring this work to study whether cocoa liquor preconching could improve the overall aroma as well as mouthfeel perception.},
  author       = {Tran, Diem Phuong and Van Durme, Jim and Van de Walle, Davy and de Winne, Ann and Delbaere, Claudia and de Clercq, Nathalie and Phan, Thi Thanh Que and Nguyen Phuc, Cat-Hanh and Tran, Dung Nhan and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0146-9428},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {311--322},
  title        = {Quality attributes of dark chocolate produced from Vietnamese cocoa liquors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12200},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2016},
}

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