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Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction

(2016) PLANT JOURNAL. 86(2). p.119-131
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Abstract
Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount insitu hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.
Keywords
SALICYLIC-ACID, GENE-EXPRESSION, TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE, PLANT DEFENSE, Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient assay, nahG tomato, GREEN PEACH APHID, Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychus evansi, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, Nicotiana benthamiana, plant defense suppression, Solanum lycopersicum, effector, TRANSIENT EXPRESSION, FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS, DISEASE RESISTANCE, INSECT HERBIVORES, EFFECTOR PROTEINS

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Citation

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Chicago
Villarroel, Carlos A, Wim Jonckheere, Juan M Alba, Joris J Glas, Wannes Dermauw, Michel A Haring, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Robert C Schuurink, and Merijn R Kant. 2016. “Salivary Proteins of Spider Mites Suppress Defenses in Nicotiana Benthamiana and Promote Mite Reproduction.” Plant Journal 86 (2): 119–131.
APA
Villarroel, C. A., Jonckheere, W., Alba, J. M., Glas, J. J., Dermauw, W., Haring, M. A., Van Leeuwen, T., et al. (2016). Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction. PLANT JOURNAL, 86(2), 119–131.
Vancouver
1.
Villarroel CA, Jonckheere W, Alba JM, Glas JJ, Dermauw W, Haring MA, et al. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction. PLANT JOURNAL. 2016;86(2):119–31.
MLA
Villarroel, Carlos A et al. “Salivary Proteins of Spider Mites Suppress Defenses in Nicotiana Benthamiana and Promote Mite Reproduction.” PLANT JOURNAL 86.2 (2016): 119–131. Print.
@article{7237213,
  abstract     = {Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount insitu hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.},
  author       = {Villarroel, Carlos A and Jonckheere, Wim and Alba, Juan M and Glas, Joris J and Dermauw, Wannes and Haring, Michel A and Van Leeuwen, Thomas and Schuurink, Robert C and Kant, Merijn R},
  issn         = {0960-7412},
  journal      = {PLANT JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {SALICYLIC-ACID,GENE-EXPRESSION,TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE,PLANT DEFENSE,Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient assay,nahG tomato,GREEN PEACH APHID,Tetranychus urticae,Tetranychus evansi,jasmonic acid,salicylic acid,Nicotiana benthamiana,plant defense suppression,Solanum lycopersicum,effector,TRANSIENT EXPRESSION,FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS,DISEASE RESISTANCE,INSECT HERBIVORES,EFFECTOR PROTEINS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {119--131},
  title        = {Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13152},
  volume       = {86},
  year         = {2016},
}

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