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Indirect rapid prototyping : opening up unprecedented opportunities in scaffold design and applications

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Abstract
Over the past decades, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) has emerged as the main technology for the production of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications as a result of the architectural versatility. However, certain limitations have also arisen, primarily associated with the available, rather limited range of materials suitable for processing. To overcome these limitations, several research groups have been exploring novel methodologies through which a construct, generated via SFF, is applied as a sacrificial mould for production of the final construct. The technique combines the benefits of SFF techniques in terms of controlled, patient-specific design with a large freedom in material selection associated with conventional scaffold production techniques. Consequently, well-defined 3D scaffolds can be generated in a straightforward manner from previously difficult to print and even "unprintable" materials due to thermomechanical properties that do not match the often strict temperature and pressure requirements for direct rapid prototyping. These include several biomaterials, thermally degradable materials, ceramics and composites. Since it can be combined with conventional pore forming techniques, indirect rapid prototyping (iRP) enables the creation of a hierarchical porosity in the final scaffold with micropores inside the struts. Consequently, scaffolds and implants for applications in both soft and hard tissue regeneration have been reported. In this review, an overview of different iRP strategies and materials are presented from the first reports of the approach at the turn of the century until now.
Keywords
Indirect 3D printing, Lost-Mould, Indirect Solid Free Form Fabrication, Indirect Rapid Prototyping, Tissue Engineering, SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION, 3-DIMENSIONAL MICROVASCULAR NETWORKS, CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE SCAFFOLDS, MARROW STROMAL CELLS, COMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS, BONE REGENERATION, PORE-SIZE, POLYCAPROLACTONE SCAFFOLDS, HYDROXYAPATITE SCAFFOLDS, INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE

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Citation

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Chicago
Houben, Annemie, Jasper Van Hoorick, Jürgen Van Erps, Hugo Thienpont, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, and Peter Dubruel. 2017. “Indirect Rapid Prototyping : Opening up Unprecedented Opportunities in Scaffold Design and Applications.” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 45 (1): 58–83.
APA
Houben, A., Van Hoorick, J., Van Erps, J., Thienpont, H., Van Vlierberghe, S., & Dubruel, P. (2017). Indirect rapid prototyping : opening up unprecedented opportunities in scaffold design and applications. ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 45(1), 58–83.
Vancouver
1.
Houben A, Van Hoorick J, Van Erps J, Thienpont H, Van Vlierberghe S, Dubruel P. Indirect rapid prototyping : opening up unprecedented opportunities in scaffold design and applications. ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING. 2017;45(1):58–83.
MLA
Houben, Annemie, Jasper Van Hoorick, Jürgen Van Erps, et al. “Indirect Rapid Prototyping : Opening up Unprecedented Opportunities in Scaffold Design and Applications.” ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 45.1 (2017): 58–83. Print.
@article{7236420,
  abstract     = {Over the past decades, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) has emerged as the main technology for the production of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications as a result of the architectural versatility. However, certain limitations have also arisen, primarily associated with the available, rather limited range of materials suitable for processing. To overcome these limitations, several research groups have been exploring novel methodologies through which a construct, generated via SFF, is applied as a sacrificial mould for production of the final construct. The technique combines the benefits of SFF techniques in terms of controlled, patient-specific design with a large freedom in material selection associated with conventional scaffold production techniques. Consequently, well-defined 3D scaffolds can be generated in a straightforward manner from previously difficult to print and even {\textacutedbl}unprintable{\textacutedbl} materials due to thermomechanical properties that do not match the often strict temperature and pressure requirements for direct rapid prototyping. These include several biomaterials, thermally degradable materials, ceramics and composites. Since it can be combined with conventional pore forming techniques, indirect rapid prototyping (iRP) enables the creation of a hierarchical porosity in the final scaffold with micropores inside the struts. Consequently, scaffolds and implants for applications in both soft and hard tissue regeneration have been reported. In this review, an overview of different iRP strategies and materials are presented from the first reports of the approach at the turn of the century until now.},
  author       = {Houben, Annemie and Van Hoorick, Jasper and Van Erps, J{\"u}rgen and Thienpont, Hugo and Van Vlierberghe, Sandra and Dubruel, Peter},
  issn         = {0090-6964},
  journal      = {ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING},
  keyword      = {Indirect 3D printing,Lost-Mould,Indirect Solid Free Form Fabrication,Indirect Rapid Prototyping,Tissue Engineering,SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION,3-DIMENSIONAL MICROVASCULAR NETWORKS,CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE SCAFFOLDS,MARROW STROMAL CELLS,COMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS,BONE REGENERATION,PORE-SIZE,POLYCAPROLACTONE SCAFFOLDS,HYDROXYAPATITE SCAFFOLDS,INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {58--83},
  title        = {Indirect rapid prototyping : opening up unprecedented opportunities in scaffold design and applications},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-016-1610-x},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2017},
}

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