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Abstract
A meta-analysis was performed to draw general conclusions concerning the impact of mechanized harvesting operations on the forest soil. Log response ratios, based on soil bulk density, were used to quantify the impact. Although it is generally assumed that clay and silt are more vulnerable than sand textures, the response ratios for clay and sand are similar. Here, the impact is maximal at the 0-10cm depth class (13 to 14%), and decreases towards the 20-30cm soil layer. For these two textures, the initial bulk density has a strongly significant negative influence on the response ratio as further compaction is prevented by high soil strength. In contrast with general assumptions, bulk densities for silt soils show almost no change, possibly due to relatively high initial bulk densities. For all textures a significant positive relationship exists between the response ratio and the machine weight. Therefore, the deployment of very heavy machines has to be restricted and adjusted to the intensity of the job. For loam, the number of passages also exerts a significant positive influence on the compaction degree, approaching a constant value at higher traffic intensities. As the results shows that clay and sand are vulnerable for compaction, and that it is generally assumed that silt textures are also prone to soil damage, traffic should be restricted on all textures. Moreover, the high impact from the first passage(s), the compacted initial state of many forest soils and the long recovery period, also count in favour of permanent skid trails.
Keywords
machine weight, initial bulk density, log response ratio, bulk density, forest soil, soil damage, forest management, traffic intensity, mechanized harvesting, meta-analysis

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Ampoorter, Evy, et al. “Soil Damage after Skidding: Results of a Meta-Analysis.” 2009 COFE : Environmentally Sound Forest Operations : 32nd Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : Abstracts by Session, 2009, pp. 13–13.
APA
Ampoorter, E., Verheyen, K., & Hermy, M. (2009). Soil damage after skidding: results of a meta-analysis. 2009 COFE : Environmentally Sound Forest Operations : 32nd Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : Abstracts by Session, 13–13.
Chicago author-date
Ampoorter, Evy, Kris Verheyen, and Martin Hermy. 2009. “Soil Damage after Skidding: Results of a Meta-Analysis.” In 2009 COFE : Environmentally Sound Forest Operations : 32nd Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : Abstracts by Session, 13–13.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ampoorter, Evy, Kris Verheyen, and Martin Hermy. 2009. “Soil Damage after Skidding: Results of a Meta-Analysis.” In 2009 COFE : Environmentally Sound Forest Operations : 32nd Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : Abstracts by Session, 13–13.
Vancouver
1.
Ampoorter E, Verheyen K, Hermy M. Soil damage after skidding: results of a meta-analysis. In: 2009 COFE : environmentally sound forest operations : 32nd annual meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : abstracts by session. 2009. p. 13–13.
IEEE
[1]
E. Ampoorter, K. Verheyen, and M. Hermy, “Soil damage after skidding: results of a meta-analysis,” in 2009 COFE : environmentally sound forest operations : 32nd annual meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : abstracts by session, Kings Beach, CA, USA, 2009, pp. 13–13.
@inproceedings{723466,
  abstract     = {{A meta-analysis was performed to draw general conclusions concerning the impact of mechanized harvesting operations on the forest soil. Log response ratios, based on soil bulk density, were used to quantify the impact. Although it is generally assumed that clay and silt are more vulnerable than sand textures, the response ratios for clay and sand are similar. Here, the impact is maximal at the 0-10cm depth class (13 to 14%), and decreases towards the 20-30cm soil layer. For these two textures, the initial bulk density has a strongly significant negative influence on the response ratio as further compaction is prevented by high soil strength. In contrast with general assumptions, bulk densities for silt soils show almost no change, possibly due to relatively high initial bulk densities. For all textures a significant positive relationship exists between the response ratio and the machine weight. Therefore, the deployment of very heavy machines has to be restricted and adjusted to the intensity of the job. For loam, the number of passages also exerts a significant positive influence on the compaction degree, approaching a constant value at higher traffic intensities. As the results shows that clay and sand are vulnerable for compaction, and that it is generally assumed that silt textures are also prone to soil damage, traffic should be restricted on all textures. Moreover, the high impact from the first passage(s), the compacted initial state of many forest soils and the long recovery period, also count in favour of permanent skid trails.}},
  author       = {{Ampoorter, Evy and Verheyen, Kris and Hermy, Martin}},
  booktitle    = {{2009 COFE : environmentally sound forest operations : 32nd annual meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering : abstracts by session}},
  keywords     = {{machine weight,initial bulk density,log response ratio,bulk density,forest soil,soil damage,forest management,traffic intensity,mechanized harvesting,meta-analysis}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Kings Beach, CA, USA}},
  pages        = {{13--13}},
  title        = {{Soil damage after skidding: results of a meta-analysis}},
  url          = {{http://www.cevs.ucdavis.edu/ces_pages/Download/COFE%202009/COFE%2009%20Abstracts.pdf}},
  year         = {{2009}},
}