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Perceived discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : evidence from the cross-sectional QUALICOPC study

Lise Hanssens (UGent) , Jens Detollenaere (UGent) , Amelie Van Pottelberge (UGent) , Stijn Baert (UGent) and Sara Willems (UGent)
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Abstract
Recent figures show that discrimination in healthcare is still persistent in the European Union. Research has confirmed these results but focused mainly on the outcomes of perceived discrimination. Studies that take into account socioeconomic determinants of discrimination limit themselves to either ethnicity, income or education. This article explores the influence of several socioeconomic indicators (e.g. gender, age, income, education and ethnicity) on perceived discrimination in 30 European countries. Data from the QUALICOPC study were used. These data were collected between October 2011 and December 2013 in the participating countries. In total, 7183 GPs (general practitioners) and 61932 patients participated in the study, which had an average response rate of 74.1%. Data collection was co-ordinated by NIVEL (Dutch Institute for Research of Health Care). Bivariate binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the impact of each socioeconomic indicator on perceived discrimination. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the unique effect of each indicator. Results indicate that in Europe, overall 7% of the respondents felt discriminated, ranging between 1.4% and 12.8% at the country level. With regard to socioeconomic determinants in perceived discrimination, income and age are both important indicators, with lower income groups and younger people having a higher chance to feel discriminated. In addition, we find significant influences of education, gender, age and ethnicity in several countries. In most countries, higher educated people, older people, women and the indigenous population appeared to feel less discriminated. In conclusion, perceived discrimination in healthcare is reported in almost all European countries, but there is large variation between European countries. A high prevalence of perceived discrimination within a country also does not imply a correlation between socioeconomic indicators and perceived discrimination.
Keywords
Europe, health inequity, perceived discrimination, socioeconomic determinants, PREVALENCE, EQUITY, NETHERLANDS, POPULATIONS, ASSOCIATION, EXPERIENCES, SAMPLE, ACCESS

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Chicago
Hanssens, Lise, Jens Detollenaere, Amelie Van Pottelberge, Stijn Baert, and Sara Willems. 2017. “Perceived Discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : Evidence from the Cross-sectional QUALICOPC Study.” Ed. Karen Luker. Health & Social Care in the Community 25 (2): 641–651.
APA
Hanssens, L., Detollenaere, J., Van Pottelberge, A., Baert, S., & Willems, S. (2017). Perceived discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : evidence from the cross-sectional QUALICOPC study. (K. Luker, Ed.)HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, 25(2), 641–651.
Vancouver
1.
Hanssens L, Detollenaere J, Van Pottelberge A, Baert S, Willems S. Perceived discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : evidence from the cross-sectional QUALICOPC study. Luker K, editor. HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY. 2017;25(2):641–51.
MLA
Hanssens, Lise, Jens Detollenaere, Amelie Van Pottelberge, et al. “Perceived Discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : Evidence from the Cross-sectional QUALICOPC Study.” Ed. Karen Luker. HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY 25.2 (2017): 641–651. Print.
@article{7222157,
  abstract     = {Recent figures show that discrimination in healthcare is still persistent in the European Union. Research has confirmed these results but focused mainly on the outcomes of perceived discrimination. Studies that take into account socioeconomic determinants of discrimination limit themselves to either ethnicity, income or education. This article explores the influence of several socioeconomic indicators (e.g. gender, age, income, education and ethnicity) on perceived discrimination in 30 European countries. Data from the QUALICOPC study were used. These data were collected between October 2011 and December 2013 in the participating countries. In total, 7183 GPs (general practitioners) and 61932 patients participated in the study, which had an average response rate of 74.1\%. Data collection was co-ordinated by NIVEL (Dutch Institute for Research of Health Care). Bivariate binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the impact of each socioeconomic indicator on perceived discrimination. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the unique effect of each indicator. Results indicate that in Europe, overall 7\% of the respondents felt discriminated, ranging between 1.4\% and 12.8\% at the country level. With regard to socioeconomic determinants in perceived discrimination, income and age are both important indicators, with lower income groups and younger people having a higher chance to feel discriminated. In addition, we find significant influences of education, gender, age and ethnicity in several countries. In most countries, higher educated people, older people, women and the indigenous population appeared to feel less discriminated. In conclusion, perceived discrimination in healthcare is reported in almost all European countries, but there is large variation between European countries. A high prevalence of perceived discrimination within a country also does not imply a correlation between socioeconomic indicators and perceived discrimination.},
  author       = {Hanssens, Lise and Detollenaere, Jens and Van Pottelberge, Amelie and Baert, Stijn and Willems, Sara},
  editor       = { Luker, Karen},
  issn         = {1365-2524},
  journal      = {HEALTH \& SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY},
  keyword      = {Europe,health inequity,perceived discrimination,socioeconomic determinants,PREVALENCE,EQUITY,NETHERLANDS,POPULATIONS,ASSOCIATION,EXPERIENCES,SAMPLE,ACCESS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {641--651},
  title        = {Perceived discrimination In Primary Healthcare in Europe : evidence from the cross-sectional QUALICOPC study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12353},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2017},
}

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