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Efficient continuous-flow benzotriazole activation and coupling of amino acids

(2015) JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY. 5(4). p.220-227
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Abstract
Despite extensive research into peptide synthesis, coupling of amino acids with weakly nucleophilic heterocyclic amines remains a challenge. The need for microwave technology to promote this coupling interferes with the scalability of the process. By applying the microwave-to-flow paradigm, a library of (alpha-aminoacyl)amino-substituted heterocycles was continuously produced at near quantitative conversions and the reaction was scaled up successfully. Various N-Cbz-protected amino acids were activated using BtH/SOCl2 under continuous-flow conditions with excellent yields. Their coupling with heterocyclic amines was accomplished in MeCN-NMP on a preparative scale. However, performing both steps in-line resulted in an inconvenient work-up. Therefore, a two-step approach was taken, isolating the intermediate Bt-activated amino acid via simple filtration. This allows for a solvent switch to DMSO for the coupling reaction which led to excellent conversions for a broad range of substrates.
Keywords
microreactor, continuous flow, amino acids, benzotriazole, amide bond formation, N-ACYLBENZOTRIAZOLES, MICRO REACTORS, BETA-PEPTIDES, REAGENTS, ALPHA, HETEROCYCLES, DERIVATIVES, INHIBITORS, DESIGN, FMOC-ALPHA-AMINOACYL)BENZOTRIAZOLES

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Citation

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MLA
Seghers, Sofie, et al. “Efficient Continuous-Flow Benzotriazole Activation and Coupling of Amino Acids.” JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY, vol. 5, no. 4, 2015, pp. 220–27, doi:10.1556/1846.2015.00029.
APA
Seghers, S., Van Waes, F., Cukalovic, A., Monbaliu, J.-C., De Visscher, J., Thybaut, J., … Stevens, C. (2015). Efficient continuous-flow benzotriazole activation and coupling of amino acids. JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY, 5(4), 220–227. https://doi.org/10.1556/1846.2015.00029
Chicago author-date
Seghers, Sofie, Frederik Van Waes, Ana Cukalovic, Jean-Christophe Monbaliu, Jeroen De Visscher, Joris Thybaut, Thomas Heugebaert, and Christian Stevens. 2015. “Efficient Continuous-Flow Benzotriazole Activation and Coupling of Amino Acids.” JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY 5 (4): 220–27. https://doi.org/10.1556/1846.2015.00029.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Seghers, Sofie, Frederik Van Waes, Ana Cukalovic, Jean-Christophe Monbaliu, Jeroen De Visscher, Joris Thybaut, Thomas Heugebaert, and Christian Stevens. 2015. “Efficient Continuous-Flow Benzotriazole Activation and Coupling of Amino Acids.” JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY 5 (4): 220–227. doi:10.1556/1846.2015.00029.
Vancouver
1.
Seghers S, Van Waes F, Cukalovic A, Monbaliu J-C, De Visscher J, Thybaut J, et al. Efficient continuous-flow benzotriazole activation and coupling of amino acids. JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY. 2015;5(4):220–7.
IEEE
[1]
S. Seghers et al., “Efficient continuous-flow benzotriazole activation and coupling of amino acids,” JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 220–227, 2015.
@article{7221978,
  abstract     = {{Despite extensive research into peptide synthesis, coupling of amino acids with weakly nucleophilic heterocyclic amines remains a challenge. The need for microwave technology to promote this coupling interferes with the scalability of the process. By applying the microwave-to-flow paradigm, a library of (alpha-aminoacyl)amino-substituted heterocycles was continuously produced at near quantitative conversions and the reaction was scaled up successfully. Various N-Cbz-protected amino acids were activated using BtH/SOCl2 under continuous-flow conditions with excellent yields. Their coupling with heterocyclic amines was accomplished in MeCN-NMP on a preparative scale. However, performing both steps in-line resulted in an inconvenient work-up. Therefore, a two-step approach was taken, isolating the intermediate Bt-activated amino acid via simple filtration. This allows for a solvent switch to DMSO for the coupling reaction which led to excellent conversions for a broad range of substrates.}},
  author       = {{Seghers, Sofie and Van Waes, Frederik and Cukalovic, Ana and Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe and De Visscher, Jeroen and Thybaut, Joris and Heugebaert, Thomas and Stevens, Christian}},
  issn         = {{2062-249X}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF FLOW CHEMISTRY}},
  keywords     = {{microreactor,continuous flow,amino acids,benzotriazole,amide bond formation,N-ACYLBENZOTRIAZOLES,MICRO REACTORS,BETA-PEPTIDES,REAGENTS,ALPHA,HETEROCYCLES,DERIVATIVES,INHIBITORS,DESIGN,FMOC-ALPHA-AMINOACYL)BENZOTRIAZOLES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{220--227}},
  title        = {{Efficient continuous-flow benzotriazole activation and coupling of amino acids}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/1846.2015.00029}},
  volume       = {{5}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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