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Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs

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Background: Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX (R)) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. Results: The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P < 0.05). The average IF scores were: V1 = 1.13, V2 = 1.19 and PCG = 1.25 (P > 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2= 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. Conclusions: Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung lesions were produced in the inoculated pigs, when compared to previous trials conducted by the same group. Further research under field conditions is warranted to assess possible differences between the two vaccination strategies.
Keywords
LUNG LESIONS, Strain, ENZOOTIC PNEUMONIA, PRODUCTION SYSTEM, WEIGHT-GAIN, PIGLETS, HERDS, VACCINES, STRAIN, SWINE, Efficacy, Vaccination, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Weaning

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MLA
Arsenakis, Ioannis, et al. “Efficacy of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Vaccination before and at Weaning against Experimental Challenge Infection in Pigs.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 12, 2016, doi:10.1186/s12917-016-0685-9.
APA
Arsenakis, I., Panzavolta, L., Michiels, A., Del Pozo Sacristán, R., Boyen, F., Haesebrouck, F., & Maes, D. (2016). Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0685-9
Chicago author-date
Arsenakis, Ioannis, Luca Panzavolta, Annelies Michiels, Rubén Del Pozo Sacristán, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, and Dominiek Maes. 2016. “Efficacy of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Vaccination before and at Weaning against Experimental Challenge Infection in Pigs.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0685-9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Arsenakis, Ioannis, Luca Panzavolta, Annelies Michiels, Rubén Del Pozo Sacristán, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, and Dominiek Maes. 2016. “Efficacy of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Vaccination before and at Weaning against Experimental Challenge Infection in Pigs.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 12. doi:10.1186/s12917-016-0685-9.
Vancouver
1.
Arsenakis I, Panzavolta L, Michiels A, Del Pozo Sacristán R, Boyen F, Haesebrouck F, et al. Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2016;12.
IEEE
[1]
I. Arsenakis et al., “Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs,” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 12, 2016.
@article{7215472,
  abstract     = {{Background: Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX (R)) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. 
Results: The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P < 0.05). The average IF scores were: V1 = 1.13, V2 = 1.19 and PCG = 1.25 (P > 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2= 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. 
Conclusions: Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung lesions were produced in the inoculated pigs, when compared to previous trials conducted by the same group. Further research under field conditions is warranted to assess possible differences between the two vaccination strategies.}},
  articleno    = {{63}},
  author       = {{Arsenakis, Ioannis and Panzavolta, Luca and Michiels, Annelies and Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén and Boyen, Filip and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Maes, Dominiek}},
  issn         = {{1746-6148}},
  journal      = {{BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{LUNG LESIONS,Strain,ENZOOTIC PNEUMONIA,PRODUCTION SYSTEM,WEIGHT-GAIN,PIGLETS,HERDS,VACCINES,STRAIN,SWINE,Efficacy,Vaccination,Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae,Weaning}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{7}},
  title        = {{Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0685-9}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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