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Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children

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Abstract
This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6-11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, and speed) and possible determinants related to child characteristics, child lifestyle and parental factors. Multivariate and mixed linear regression models were conducted. Age, sex, children's BMI and physical activity were independent and strong determinants of children's fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness. The role of determinants depended on children's sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child's BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity. BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors are modifiable targets to enhance physical fitness. This calls for policy approaches that combine these factors in a systematic way.
Keywords
Physical fitness, Children, Lifestyle, Parental determinants, Body mass index, IDEFICS, BODY-MASS INDEX, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, ADOLESCENTS, IDEFICS, HEALTH, YOUTH, CONSUMPTION, OVERWEIGHT, CHILDHOOD, BREAKFAST

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Citation

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MLA
Zaqout, Mahmoud et al. “Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 61.5 (2016): 573–582. Print.
APA
Zaqout, M., Vyncke, K., Moreno, L. A., De Miguel-Etayo, P., Lauria, F., Molnar, D., Lissner, L., et al. (2016). Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 61(5), 573–582.
Chicago author-date
Zaqout, Mahmoud, Krishna Vyncke, Luis A Moreno, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Fabio Lauria, Denes Molnar, Lauren Lissner, et al. 2016. “Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children.” International Journal of Public Health 61 (5): 573–582.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zaqout, Mahmoud, Krishna Vyncke, Luis A Moreno, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Fabio Lauria, Denes Molnar, Lauren Lissner, Monica Hunsberger, Toomas Veidebaum, Michael Tornaritis, Lucia A Reisch, Karin Bammann, Ole Sprengeler, Wolfgan Ahrens, and Nathalie Michels. 2016. “Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children.” International Journal of Public Health 61 (5): 573–582.
Vancouver
1.
Zaqout M, Vyncke K, Moreno LA, De Miguel-Etayo P, Lauria F, Molnar D, et al. Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 2016;61(5):573–82.
IEEE
[1]
M. Zaqout et al., “Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 573–582, 2016.
@article{7213499,
  abstract     = {This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6-11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. 
There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, and speed) and possible determinants related to child characteristics, child lifestyle and parental factors. Multivariate and mixed linear regression models were conducted. 
Age, sex, children's BMI and physical activity were independent and strong determinants of children's fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness. The role of determinants depended on children's sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child's BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity. 
BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors are modifiable targets to enhance physical fitness. This calls for policy approaches that combine these factors in a systematic way.},
  author       = {Zaqout, Mahmoud and Vyncke, Krishna and Moreno, Luis A and De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar and Lauria, Fabio and Molnar, Denes and Lissner, Lauren and Hunsberger, Monica and Veidebaum, Toomas and Tornaritis, Michael and Reisch, Lucia A and Bammann, Karin and Sprengeler, Ole and Ahrens, Wolfgan and Michels, Nathalie},
  issn         = {1661-8556},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH},
  keywords     = {Physical fitness,Children,Lifestyle,Parental determinants,Body mass index,IDEFICS,BODY-MASS INDEX,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,ADOLESCENTS,IDEFICS,HEALTH,YOUTH,CONSUMPTION,OVERWEIGHT,CHILDHOOD,BREAKFAST},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {573--582},
  title        = {Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-016-0811-2},
  volume       = {61},
  year         = {2016},
}

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