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Risk factors and consequences of anastomotic leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy

ELKE VAN DAELE (UGent) , Dirk Van de Putte (UGent) , Wim Ceelen (UGent) , Yves Van Nieuwenhove (UGent) and Piet Pattyn (UGent)
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Oesophageal carcinoma (EC) remains an aggressive disease. Despite extensive changes in therapeutic modalities, surgical resection remains the first choice therapy for curable oesophageal cancer patients. Anastomotic sites are prone to serious complications such as leakage, fistula, bleeding and stricture. Leakage of the anastomosis (AL) remains one of the main causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors associated with postoperative leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy and its consequences in a single centre. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 412 Ivor Lewis oesophageal resections in a single institute between 2005 and 2014. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression have been used to identify predictors of AL and its impact on postoperative outcome and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to analyse overall survival and log-rank analysis to determine odds ratio. RESULTS: A total of 412 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 62 +/- 11 years (77% male). Overall leak rate was 2.9%. In-hospital or 30-day mortality was 4.4%. Mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 1 day and mean hospital stay was 19 days. A history of renal failure, diabetes, higher American Society of Anaesthesiologists score and current cigarette and corticosteroid use were identified as predictors of AL on univariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified active smoking [P = 0.05, odds ratio (OR) 4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-19.28] and active corticosteroid use (P < 0.001, OR 15.8, 95% CI: 3.25-76.7) as independent significant predictors. A history of diabetes tended to be associated with a higher leakage rate but failed to reach statistical significance. AL was associated with a longer ICU and hospital stay and a significantly higher mortality (42% in the AL group vs 3% in the control group, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Identifying risk factors preoperatively can contribute to the prevention of postoperative complications.
Keywords
Oesophagectomy, Anastomotic leakage, Risk factors, Oesophageal cancer, TRANSTHORACIC ESOPHAGECTOMY, TRANSHIATAL ESOPHAGECTOMY, PROSPECTIVE COHORT, PREDICTIVE FACTORS, CANCER, OUTCOMES, METAANALYSIS, CARCINOMA, MORBIDITY, MORTALITY

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Chicago
VAN DAELE, ELKE, DIRK VAN DE PUTTE, Wim Ceelen, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, and Piet Pattyn. 2016. “Risk Factors and Consequences of Anastomotic Leakage After Ivor Lewis Oesophagectomy.” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 22 (1): 32–37.
APA
VAN DAELE, E., VAN DE PUTTE, D., Ceelen, W., Van Nieuwenhove, Y., & Pattyn, P. (2016). Risk factors and consequences of anastomotic leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy. INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, 22(1), 32–37.
Vancouver
1.
VAN DAELE E, VAN DE PUTTE D, Ceelen W, Van Nieuwenhove Y, Pattyn P. Risk factors and consequences of anastomotic leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy. INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY. 2016;22(1):32–7.
MLA
VAN DAELE, ELKE, DIRK VAN DE PUTTE, Wim Ceelen, et al. “Risk Factors and Consequences of Anastomotic Leakage After Ivor Lewis Oesophagectomy.” INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY 22.1 (2016): 32–37. Print.
@article{7208164,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVES: Oesophageal carcinoma (EC) remains an aggressive disease. Despite extensive changes in therapeutic modalities, surgical resection remains the first choice therapy for curable oesophageal cancer patients. Anastomotic sites are prone to serious complications such as leakage, fistula, bleeding and stricture. Leakage of the anastomosis (AL) remains one of the main causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors associated with postoperative leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy and its consequences in a single centre. 
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 412 Ivor Lewis oesophageal resections in a single institute between 2005 and 2014. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression have been used to identify predictors of AL and its impact on postoperative outcome and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to analyse overall survival and log-rank analysis to determine odds ratio. 
RESULTS: A total of 412 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 62 +/- 11 years (77\% male). Overall leak rate was 2.9\%. In-hospital or 30-day mortality was 4.4\%. Mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 1 day and mean hospital stay was 19 days. A history of renal failure, diabetes, higher American Society of Anaesthesiologists score and current cigarette and corticosteroid use were identified as predictors of AL on univariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified active smoking [P = 0.05, odds ratio (OR) 4.34, 95\% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-19.28] and active corticosteroid use (P {\textlangle} 0.001, OR 15.8, 95\% CI: 3.25-76.7) as independent significant predictors. A history of diabetes tended to be associated with a higher leakage rate but failed to reach statistical significance. AL was associated with a longer ICU and hospital stay and a significantly higher mortality (42\% in the AL group vs 3\% in the control group, P {\textlangle} 0.0001). 
CONCLUSIONS: Anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Identifying risk factors preoperatively can contribute to the prevention of postoperative complications.},
  author       = {VAN DAELE, ELKE and Van de Putte, Dirk and Ceelen, Wim and Van Nieuwenhove, Yves and Pattyn, Piet},
  issn         = {1569-9293},
  journal      = {INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {32--37},
  title        = {Risk factors and consequences of anastomotic leakage after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivv276},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2016},
}

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