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Children's GPS‑determined versus self‑reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine both GPS-determined and self-reported walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time during week- and weekend-days among 10 to 12-year old children. Comparisons between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time were investigated. Second, associations between parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time were studied. METHODS: Children (10 to 12-years old; n = 126) wore a GPS device and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to assess objectively measured transport in leisure time and filled out a diary to assess self-reported transport in leisure time. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to test for concurrent validity and differences between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time. Generalized linear models were used to determine the associations between the parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined transport in leisure time. RESULTS: Overall, children under-reported their walking and cycling in leisure time, compared to GPS-determined measures (all p values <0.001). However, children reported their passive transport in leisure time during weekend days quite accurate. GPS-determined measures revealed that children walked most during weekdays (M = 3.96 trips/day; 26.10 min/day) and used passive transport more frequently during weekend days (M = 2.12 trips/day; 31.39 min/day). Only a few parental perceived environmental attributes of the neighborhood (i.e. residential density, land use mix access, quality and availability of walking and cycling facilities, and aesthetics) were significantly associated with children's GPS-determined walking, cycling or passive transport in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS: To accurately assess children's active transport in leisure time, GPS measures are recommended over self-reports. More research using GPS with a focus on children's transport in leisure time and investigating the associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment is needed to confirm the results of the present study.
Keywords
Children, Transport in leisure time, Physical environment, GPS, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, INDEPENDENT MOBILITY, LOCAL NEIGHBORHOOD, ACCELEROMETER DATA, WALKABILITY SCALE, ACTIVE-TRANSPORT, WALKING, TRAVEL, YOUTH

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Chicago
Vanwolleghem, Griet, Jasper Schipperijn, Freja Gheysen, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, and Delfien Van Dyck. 2016. “Children’s GPS‑determined Versus Self‑reported Transport in Leisure Time and Associations with Parental Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment.” International Journal of Health Geographics 15.
APA
Vanwolleghem, G., Schipperijn, J., Gheysen, F., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Dyck, D. (2016). Children’s GPS‑determined versus self‑reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS, 15.
Vancouver
1.
Vanwolleghem G, Schipperijn J, Gheysen F, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Van Dyck D. Children’s GPS‑determined versus self‑reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS. 2016;15.
MLA
Vanwolleghem, Griet et al. “Children’s GPS‑determined Versus Self‑reported Transport in Leisure Time and Associations with Parental Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS 15 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{7206634,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine both GPS-determined and self-reported walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time during week- and weekend-days among 10 to 12-year old children. Comparisons between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time were investigated. Second, associations between parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time were studied.
METHODS: Children (10 to 12-years old; n = 126) wore a GPS device and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to assess objectively measured transport in leisure time and filled out a diary to assess self-reported transport in leisure time. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to test for concurrent validity and differences between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time. Generalized linear models were used to determine the associations between the parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined transport in leisure time.
RESULTS: Overall, children under-reported their walking and cycling in leisure time, compared to GPS-determined measures (all p values {\textlangle}0.001). However, children reported their passive transport in leisure time during weekend days quite accurate. GPS-determined measures revealed that children walked most during weekdays (M = 3.96 trips/day; 26.10 min/day) and used passive transport more frequently during weekend days (M = 2.12 trips/day; 31.39 min/day). Only a few parental perceived environmental attributes of the neighborhood (i.e. residential density, land use mix access, quality and availability of walking and cycling facilities, and aesthetics) were significantly associated with children's GPS-determined walking, cycling or passive transport in leisure time.
CONCLUSIONS: To accurately assess children's active transport in leisure time, GPS measures are recommended over self-reports. More research using GPS with a focus on children's transport in leisure time and investigating the associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment is needed to confirm the results of the present study.},
  articleno    = {16},
  author       = {Vanwolleghem, Griet and Schipperijn, Jasper and Gheysen, Freja and Cardon, Greet and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Van Dyck, Delfien},
  issn         = {1476-072X},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Children's GPS\unmatched{2011}determined versus self\unmatched{2011}reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-016-0045-9},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2016},
}

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