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The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses

(2016) VETERINARY QUARTERLY. 36(1). p.10-15
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Abstract
Background: In equine laminitis, the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) appears to have increased muscle force, but evidence-based confirmation is lacking. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test if the DDFM of laminitic equines has an increased muscle force detectable by needle electromyography interference pattern analysis (IPA). Animals and Methods: The control group included six Royal Dutch Sport horses, three Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony [10 healthy, sound adults weighing 411 217 kg (mean SD) and aged 10 +/- 5 years]. The laminitic group included three Royal Dutch Sport horses, one Friesian, one Haflinger, one Icelandic horse, one Welsh pony, one miniature Appaloosa and six Shetland ponies (14 adults, weight 310 +/- 178 kg, aged 13 +/- 6 years) with acute/chronic laminitis. The electromyography IPA measurements included firing rate, turns/second (T), amplitude/turn (M) and M/T ratio. Statistical analysis used a general linear model with outcomes transformed to geometric means. Results: The firing rate of the total laminitic group was higher than the total control group. This difference was smaller for the ponies compared to the horses; in the horses, the geometric mean difference of the laminitic group was 1.73 [geometric 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.32], and in the ponies this value was 1.09 (geometric 95% CI 0.82-1.45). Conclusion and clinical relevance: In human medicine, an increased firing rate is characteristic of increased muscle force. Thus, the increased firing rate of the DDFM in the context of laminitis suggests an elevated muscle force. However, this seems to be only a partial effect as in this study, the unchanged turns/second and amplitude/turn failed to prove the recruitment of larger motor units with larger amplitude motor unit potentials in laminitic equids.
Keywords
equine, Horse, deep digital flexor muscle, electromyography, laminitis, TOXIN TYPE-A, DUTCH SPORT HORSES, SOUND, INJECTIONS, PROGNOSIS, TENSION

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Hardeman, LC, BR van der Meij, Willem Back, JH van der Kolk, and ID Wijnberg. 2016. “The Use of Electromyography Interference Pattern Analysis to Determine Muscle Force of the Deep Digital Flexor Muscle in Healthy and Laminitic Horses.” Veterinary Quarterly 36 (1): 10–15.
APA
Hardeman, L., van der Meij, B., Back, W., van der Kolk, J., & Wijnberg, I. (2016). The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses. VETERINARY QUARTERLY, 36(1), 10–15.
Vancouver
1.
Hardeman L, van der Meij B, Back W, van der Kolk J, Wijnberg I. The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses. VETERINARY QUARTERLY. 2016;36(1):10–5.
MLA
Hardeman, LC, BR van der Meij, Willem Back, et al. “The Use of Electromyography Interference Pattern Analysis to Determine Muscle Force of the Deep Digital Flexor Muscle in Healthy and Laminitic Horses.” VETERINARY QUARTERLY 36.1 (2016): 10–15. Print.
@article{7205879,
  abstract     = {Background: In equine laminitis, the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) appears to have increased muscle force, but evidence-based confirmation is lacking.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test if the DDFM of laminitic equines has an increased muscle force detectable by needle electromyography interference pattern analysis (IPA).
Animals and Methods: The control group included six Royal Dutch Sport horses, three Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony [10 healthy, sound adults weighing 411 217 kg (mean SD) and aged 10 +/- 5 years]. The laminitic group included three Royal Dutch Sport horses, one Friesian, one Haflinger, one Icelandic horse, one Welsh pony, one miniature Appaloosa and six Shetland ponies (14 adults, weight 310 +/- 178 kg, aged 13 +/- 6 years) with acute/chronic laminitis. The electromyography IPA measurements included firing rate, turns/second (T), amplitude/turn (M) and M/T ratio. Statistical analysis used a general linear model with outcomes transformed to geometric means.
Results: The firing rate of the total laminitic group was higher than the total control group. This difference was smaller for the ponies compared to the horses; in the horses, the geometric mean difference of the laminitic group was 1.73 [geometric 95\% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.32], and in the ponies this value was 1.09 (geometric 95\% CI 0.82-1.45).
Conclusion and clinical relevance: In human medicine, an increased firing rate is characteristic of increased muscle force. Thus, the increased firing rate of the DDFM in the context of laminitis suggests an elevated muscle force. However, this seems to be only a partial effect as in this study, the unchanged turns/second and amplitude/turn failed to prove the recruitment of larger motor units with larger amplitude motor unit potentials in laminitic equids.},
  author       = {Hardeman, LC and van der Meij, BR and Back, Willem and van der Kolk, JH and Wijnberg, ID},
  issn         = {0165-2176},
  journal      = {VETERINARY QUARTERLY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {10--15},
  title        = {The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2015.1106116},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2016},
}

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