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Urinary mineral concentrations in European pre-adolescent children and their association with calcaneal bone quantitative ultrasound measurements

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Abstract
This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias.
Keywords
magnesium, potassium, phosphate, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound, children, calcium, sodium

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Chicago
Van den Bussche, Karen, Diana Herrmann, Stefaan De Henauw, Yiannis A Kourides, Fabio Lauria, Staffan Marild, Dénes Molnár, et al. 2016. “Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements.” Ed. Marlena Kruger and Hope Weiler. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13 (5).
APA
Van den Bussche, K., Herrmann, D., De Henauw, S., Kourides, Y. A., Lauria, F., Marild, S., Molnár, D., et al. (2016). Urinary mineral concentrations in European pre-adolescent children and their association with calcaneal bone quantitative ultrasound measurements. (M. Kruger & H. Weiler, Eds.)INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 13(5). Presented at the 12th International symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.
Vancouver
1.
Van den Bussche K, Herrmann D, De Henauw S, Kourides YA, Lauria F, Marild S, et al. Urinary mineral concentrations in European pre-adolescent children and their association with calcaneal bone quantitative ultrasound measurements. Kruger M, Weiler H, editors. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 2016;13(5).
MLA
Van den Bussche, Karen, Diana Herrmann, Stefaan De Henauw, et al. “Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements.” Ed. Marlena Kruger & Hope Weiler. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 13.5 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{7205334,
  abstract     = {This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1--11.9 years, 50.6\% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias.},
  articleno    = {471},
  author       = {Van den Bussche, Karen and Herrmann, Diana and De Henauw, Stefaan and Kourides, Yiannis A and Lauria, Fabio and Marild, Staffan and Moln{\'a}r, D{\'e}nes and Moreno, Luis A and Veidebaum, Toomas and Ahrens, Wolfgang and Sioen, Isabelle},
  editor       = {Kruger, Marlena and Weiler, Hope},
  issn         = {1660-4601},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Jackson, MS, USA},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Urinary mineral concentrations in European pre-adolescent children and their association with calcaneal bone quantitative ultrasound measurements},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050471},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2016},
}

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