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Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms

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Abstract
We propose a procedure to extract multiple parameters from the spectral characteristic of a single photonic integrated circuit. We applied the method on high order silicon Mach-Zehnder lattice filters:1 these filters are realized by cascading delay stages and directional couplers of different length. Because of their cascaded nature and steep roll-off properties, these devices can be used to accurately extract properties of the waveguides and the directional couplers. The spectral transmission is measured between the inputs and the outputs. This result is compared to a full CAPHE optical circuit simulation with parametric behavioral models for the waveguide and the directional couplers. An evolutionary fitting algorithm based on the covariance matrix adaptation method is used to match the circuit simulation with the measurement. This black box approach gives us fast and accurate parameter extraction with a reduced number of iteration steps. The quadratic error between measurement and simulation of each iteration is used as feedback for the evolutionary algorithm that adapts the test values for the following step. The objective of our analysis is an accurate, wavelength-dependent model for the waveguide group index and the directional couplers. The proposed method has been used for wafer scale parameter extraction. Our fast method makes it possible to extract the parameters in real time, and correlate the functional parameters of the waveguides with process statistics collected during fabrication. The obtained parameters are in substantial agreement with the results of the simulations used in the design, and can be used to further improve behavioral models that correlate the manufacturing process data with the optical performance.
Keywords
Characterization of photonic integrated circuits, Simulation of photonic integrated circuits, Optical parameter extraction, Processing flow optimization, Numerical techniques for photonic integrated circuits, SILICON-ON-INSULATOR, INTERLEAVER

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MLA
Ruocco, Alfonso, et al. “Multi-Parameter Extraction from SOI Photonic Integrated Circuits Using Circuit Simulation and Evolutionary Algorithms.” Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 9366, 2015, doi:10.1117/12.2077564.
APA
Ruocco, A., Fiers, M., Vanslembrouck, M., Van Vaerenbergh, T., & Bogaerts, W. (2015). Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms. In Proceedings of SPIE (Vol. 9366). San Francisco, CA. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077564
Chicago author-date
Ruocco, Alfonso, Martin Fiers, Michaël Vanslembrouck, Thomas Van Vaerenbergh, and Wim Bogaerts. 2015. “Multi-Parameter Extraction from SOI Photonic Integrated Circuits Using Circuit Simulation and Evolutionary Algorithms.” In Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 9366. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2077564.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ruocco, Alfonso, Martin Fiers, Michaël Vanslembrouck, Thomas Van Vaerenbergh, and Wim Bogaerts. 2015. “Multi-Parameter Extraction from SOI Photonic Integrated Circuits Using Circuit Simulation and Evolutionary Algorithms.” In Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 9366. doi:10.1117/12.2077564.
Vancouver
1.
Ruocco A, Fiers M, Vanslembrouck M, Van Vaerenbergh T, Bogaerts W. Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms. In: Proceedings of SPIE. 2015.
IEEE
[1]
A. Ruocco, M. Fiers, M. Vanslembrouck, T. Van Vaerenbergh, and W. Bogaerts, “Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms,” in Proceedings of SPIE, San Francisco, CA, 2015, vol. 9366.
@inproceedings{7196224,
  abstract     = {{We propose a procedure to extract multiple parameters from the spectral characteristic of a single photonic integrated circuit. We applied the method on high order silicon Mach-Zehnder lattice filters:1 these filters are realized by cascading delay stages and directional couplers of different length. Because of their cascaded nature and steep roll-off properties, these devices can be used to accurately extract properties of the waveguides and the directional couplers. The spectral transmission is measured between the inputs and the outputs. This result is compared to a full CAPHE optical circuit simulation with parametric behavioral models for the waveguide and the directional couplers. An evolutionary fitting algorithm based on the covariance matrix adaptation method is used to match the circuit simulation with the measurement. This black box approach gives us fast and accurate parameter extraction with a reduced number of iteration steps. The quadratic error between measurement and simulation of each iteration is used as feedback for the evolutionary algorithm that adapts the test values for the following step. The objective of our analysis is an accurate, wavelength-dependent model for the waveguide group index and the directional couplers. The proposed method has been used for wafer scale parameter extraction. Our fast method makes it possible to extract the parameters in real time, and correlate the functional parameters of the waveguides with process statistics collected during fabrication. The obtained parameters are in substantial agreement with the results of the simulations used in the design, and can be used to further improve behavioral models that correlate the manufacturing process data with the optical performance.}},
  articleno    = {{936606}},
  author       = {{Ruocco, Alfonso and Fiers, Martin and Vanslembrouck, Michaël and Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas and Bogaerts, Wim}},
  booktitle    = {{Proceedings of SPIE}},
  isbn         = {{978-1-62841-456-1}},
  issn         = {{0277-786X}},
  keywords     = {{Characterization of photonic integrated circuits,Simulation of photonic integrated circuits,Optical parameter extraction,Processing flow optimization,Numerical techniques for photonic integrated circuits,SILICON-ON-INSULATOR,INTERLEAVER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{San Francisco, CA}},
  title        = {{Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2077564}},
  volume       = {{9366}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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