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Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

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Abstract
There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.
Keywords
SPECIES RICHNESS, SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, STATISTICAL INEVITABILITY, CURRENT KNOWLEDGE, EXTRACTION METHOD, PLANT DIVERSITY, SERVICES, NITROGEN, CARBON, CHALLENGES

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Chicago
van der Plas, Fons, Peter Manning, Eric Allan, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Kris Verheyen, Christian Wirth, Miguel A Zavala, et al. 2016. “Jack-of-all-trades Effects Drive Biodiversity-ecosystem Multifunctionality Relationships in European Forests.” Nature Communications 7.
APA
van der Plas, F., Manning, P., Allan, E., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Verheyen, K., Wirth, C., Zavala, M. A., et al. (2016). Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 7.
Vancouver
1.
van der Plas F, Manning P, Allan E, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Verheyen K, Wirth C, et al. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. 2016;7.
MLA
van der Plas, Fons, Peter Manning, Eric Allan, et al. “Jack-of-all-trades Effects Drive Biodiversity-ecosystem Multifunctionality Relationships in European Forests.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 7 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{7192567,
  abstract     = {There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.},
  articleno    = {11109},
  author       = {van der Plas, Fons and Manning, Peter and Allan, Eric and Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael and Verheyen, Kris and Wirth, Christian and Zavala, Miguel A and Hector, Andy and Ampoorter, Evy and Baeten, Lander and Barbaro, Luc and Bauhus, J{\"u}rgen and Benavides, Raquel and Benneter, Adam and Berthold, Felix and Bonal, Damien and Bouriaud, Olivier and Bruelheide, Helge and Bussotti, Filippo and Carnol, Monique and Castagneyrol, Bastien and Charbonnier, Yohan and Coomes, David and Coppi, Andrea and Bastias, Cristina C and Dawud, Seid Muhie and De Wandeler, Hans and Domisch, Timo and Fin{\'e}r, Leena and Gessler, Arthur and Granier, Andr{\'e} and Grossiord, Charlotte and Guyot, Virginie and H{\"a}ttenschwiler, Stephan and Jactel, Herv{\'e} and Jaroszewicz, Bogdan and Joly, Francois-Xavier and Jucker, Tommaso and Koricheva, Julia and Milligan, Harriet and M{\"u}ller, Sandra and Muys, Bart and Nguyen, Diem and Pollastrini, Martina and Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten and Selvi, Federico and Stenlid, Jan and Valladares, Fernando and Vesterdal, Lars and Ziel{\'i}nski, Dawid and Fischer, Markus},
  issn         = {2041-1723},
  journal      = {NATURE COMMUNICATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11109},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2016},
}

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