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Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the separation of fatty acids in milk

Bruno Vlaeminck UGent, James Harynuk, Veerle Fievez UGent and Philip Marriott (2007) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 109(8). p.757-766
abstract
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) is a recent tech-nique, rapidly gaining importance for the analysis of complex samples. Here, we eval-uate the potential of GC x GC for the analysis of the fatty acid profile of milk from dairy cows fed either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with marine algae. Fatty acids were separated using two column combinations, a nonpolar/polar arrangement and a polar/nonpolar arrangement. Due to the difference in separation mechanism of the two columns, GC x GC resulted in an improved separation compared with analysis on the same column set without the use of the modulator. Displaying the peaks in a 2-D contour plot showed a well-ordered structure of fatty acids according to their number of carbon atoms and degree of unsaturation, facilitating identification of known and unknown compounds. Based on these relations, identification of carbon number and degree of unsaturation of several 22-fatty acids was possible. The large difference between the 22-fatty acids from milk fat of cows fed the control and the marine algae-containing diet suggest that rumen hydrogenation of 22:6 n-3 results in a similar com-plex profile of hydrogenation intermediates as observed for 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3. In conclusion, this experiment suggests GC x GC to be a powerful technique for the analysis of fatty acids. Nevertheless, further research on the optimization of GC x GC is needed to increase separation of trans- and c/s-18:1 isomers, which may require a longer and/or more selective 1 D column.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
fatty acids, Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, milk, CONJUGATED LINOLEIC-ACID, EMPHASIS, ISOMERS, IDENTIFICATION, LIPIDS, GC, SPECTROMETRY, METHYLATION, COLUMN, CHAIN
journal title
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.
volume
109
issue
8
pages
757 - 766
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000249057900003
JCR category
FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
JCR impact factor
0.911 (2007)
JCR rank
52/102 (2007)
JCR quartile
3 (2007)
ISSN
1438-7697
DOI
10.1002/EJLT.200700004
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
718745
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-718745
date created
2009-07-23 09:16:56
date last changed
2009-09-23 15:33:37
@article{718745,
  abstract     = {Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) is a recent tech-nique, rapidly gaining importance for the analysis of complex samples. Here, we eval-uate the potential of GC x GC for the analysis of the fatty acid profile of milk from dairy cows fed either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with marine algae. Fatty acids were separated using two column combinations, a nonpolar/polar arrangement and a polar/nonpolar arrangement. Due to the difference in separation mechanism of the two columns, GC x GC resulted in an improved separation compared with analysis on the same column set without the use of the modulator. Displaying the peaks in a 2-D contour plot showed a well-ordered structure of fatty acids according to their number of carbon atoms and degree of unsaturation, facilitating identification of known and unknown compounds. Based on these relations, identification of carbon number and degree of unsaturation of several 22-fatty acids was possible. The large difference between the 22-fatty acids from milk fat of cows fed the control and the marine algae-containing diet suggest that rumen hydrogenation of 22:6 n-3 results in a similar com-plex profile of hydrogenation intermediates as observed for 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3. In conclusion, this experiment suggests GC x GC to be a powerful technique for the analysis of fatty acids. Nevertheless, further research on the optimization of GC x GC is needed to increase separation of trans- and c/s-18:1 isomers, which may require a longer and/or more selective 1 D column.},
  author       = {Vlaeminck, Bruno and Harynuk, James and Fievez, Veerle and Marriott, Philip},
  issn         = {1438-7697},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {fatty acids,Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography,milk,CONJUGATED LINOLEIC-ACID,EMPHASIS,ISOMERS,IDENTIFICATION,LIPIDS,GC,SPECTROMETRY,METHYLATION,COLUMN,CHAIN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {757--766},
  title        = {Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the separation of fatty acids in milk},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/EJLT.200700004},
  volume       = {109},
  year         = {2007},
}

Chicago
Vlaeminck, Bruno, James Harynuk, Veerle Fievez, and Philip Marriott. 2007. “Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography for the Separation of Fatty Acids in Milk.” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109 (8): 757–766.
APA
Vlaeminck, B., Harynuk, J., Fievez, V., & Marriott, P. (2007). Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the separation of fatty acids in milk. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 109(8), 757–766.
Vancouver
1.
Vlaeminck B, Harynuk J, Fievez V, Marriott P. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the separation of fatty acids in milk. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2007;109(8):757–66.
MLA
Vlaeminck, Bruno, James Harynuk, Veerle Fievez, et al. “Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography for the Separation of Fatty Acids in Milk.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 109.8 (2007): 757–766. Print.