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A multidisciplinary approach to clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation : the crucial role of counselling

Lotte De Schrijver (UGent) , Els Leye (UGent) and Mireille Merckx (UGent)
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Abstract
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is becoming more widely seen in the West, due to immigration and population movement. Health services are being confronted with the need to provide care for women with FGM. One of the more recent trends is the provision of clitoral reconstruction. It remains unclear, however, what constitutes good practice with regard to this type of surgery. Methods: Based on a keynote presentation about reconstructive clitoral surgery, we briefly discuss the possible consequences of FGM and the findings from recent publications on clitoral reconstruction. Recognising individual differences in women, we suggest a multidisciplinary counselling model to provide appropriate care for women requesting clitoral reconstruction. Results: The literature shows that FGM influences physical, mental and sexual health. Clitoral reconstructive, surgery can lead to an increase in sexual satisfaction and orgasm in some, but not all, women. A multidisciplinary approach would enable a more satisfactory and individually tailored approach to care. The multidisciplinary team should consist of a midwife, a gynaecological surgeon, a psychologist-psychotherapist, a sexologist and a social worker. Comprehensive health counselling should be the common thread in this model of care. Our proposed care pathway starts with taking a thorough history, followed by medical, psychological and sexological consultations. Conclusions: Women with FGM requesting clitoral reconstruction might primarily be looking to improve their sexual life, to recover their identity and to reduce pain. Surgery may not always be the right answer. Thorough counselling that includes medical, psychological and sexual advice is therefore necessary as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
Keywords
counselling, multidisciplinary approach, reconstructive surgery, Clitoral reconstruction, female genital cutting, migrant health, female genital mutilation, female circumcision, SEXUAL FUNCTION, WOMEN, SURGERY, CONSEQUENCES, HEALTH, CIRCUMCISION, SYMPTOMS, DISORDER, IMAGE, FGM/C

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Chicago
De Schrijver, Lotte, Els Leye, and Mireille Merckx. 2016. “A Multidisciplinary Approach to Clitoral Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation : the Crucial Role of Counselling.” European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 21 (4): 269–275.
APA
De Schrijver, L., Leye, E., & Merckx, M. (2016). A multidisciplinary approach to clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation : the crucial role of counselling. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE, 21(4), 269–275.
Vancouver
1.
De Schrijver L, Leye E, Merckx M. A multidisciplinary approach to clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation : the crucial role of counselling. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE. 2016;21(4):269–75.
MLA
De Schrijver, Lotte, Els Leye, and Mireille Merckx. “A Multidisciplinary Approach to Clitoral Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation : the Crucial Role of Counselling.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE 21.4 (2016): 269–275. Print.
@article{7183089,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is becoming more widely seen in the West, due to immigration and population movement. Health services are being confronted with the need to provide care for women with FGM. One of the more recent trends is the provision of clitoral reconstruction. It remains unclear, however, what constitutes good practice with regard to this type of surgery.
Methods: Based on a keynote presentation about reconstructive clitoral surgery, we briefly discuss the possible consequences of FGM and the findings from recent publications on clitoral reconstruction. Recognising individual differences in women, we suggest a multidisciplinary counselling model to provide appropriate care for women requesting clitoral reconstruction.
Results: The literature shows that FGM influences physical, mental and sexual health. Clitoral reconstructive, surgery can lead to an increase in sexual satisfaction and orgasm in some, but not all, women. A multidisciplinary approach would enable a more satisfactory and individually tailored approach to care. The multidisciplinary team should consist of a midwife, a gynaecological surgeon, a psychologist-psychotherapist, a sexologist and a social worker. Comprehensive health counselling should be the common thread in this model of care. Our proposed care pathway starts with taking a thorough history, followed by medical, psychological and sexological consultations.
Conclusions: Women with FGM requesting clitoral reconstruction might primarily be looking to improve their sexual life, to recover their identity and to reduce pain. Surgery may not always be the right answer. Thorough counselling that includes medical, psychological and sexual advice is therefore necessary as part of a multidisciplinary approach.},
  author       = {De Schrijver, Lotte and Leye, Els and Merckx, Mireille},
  issn         = {1362-5187},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE},
  keywords     = {counselling,multidisciplinary approach,reconstructive surgery,Clitoral reconstruction,female genital cutting,migrant health,female genital mutilation,female circumcision,SEXUAL FUNCTION,WOMEN,SURGERY,CONSEQUENCES,HEALTH,CIRCUMCISION,SYMPTOMS,DISORDER,IMAGE,FGM/C},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {269--275},
  title        = {A multidisciplinary approach to clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation : the crucial role of counselling},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13625187.2016.1172063},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2016},
}

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