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Role of the gut microbiome in uremia: a potential therapeutic target

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Abstract
Also known as the "second human genome," the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. The symbiotic relationship between host and microbiome is disturbed due to the proliferation of dysbiotic bacteria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fermentation of protein and amino acids by gut bacteria generates excess amounts of potentially toxic compounds such as ammonia, amines, thiols, phenols, and indoles, but the generation of short-chain fatty acids is reduced. Impaired intestinal barrier function in patients with CKD permits translocation of gut-derived uremic toxins into the systemic circulation, contributing to the progression of CKD, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and protein-energy wasting. The field of microbiome research is still nascent, but is evolving rapidly. Establishing symbiosis to treat uremic syndrome is a novel concept, but if proved effective, it will have a significant impact on the management of patients with CKD.
Keywords
INDOXYL SULFATE, HEMODIALYSIS-PATIENTS, CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS, SMOOTH-MUSCLE-CELLS, HUMAN LARGE-INTESTINE, TRIMETHYLAMINE-N-OXIDE, ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS, P-CRESYL SULFATE, CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE, review, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), uremic syndrome, indole, phenol, amine, thiol, urea, ammonia, metabolome, microbial metabolite, uremic toxin, Gut microbiome

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Chicago
Ramezani, Ali, Ziad A Massy, Björn Meijers, Pieter Evenepoel, Raymond Vanholder, and Dominic S Raj. 2016. “Role of the Gut Microbiome in Uremia: a Potential Therapeutic Target.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases 67 (3): 483–498.
APA
Ramezani, A., Massy, Z. A., Meijers, B., Evenepoel, P., Vanholder, R., & Raj, D. S. (2016). Role of the gut microbiome in uremia: a potential therapeutic target. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES, 67(3), 483–498.
Vancouver
1.
Ramezani A, Massy ZA, Meijers B, Evenepoel P, Vanholder R, Raj DS. Role of the gut microbiome in uremia: a potential therapeutic target. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES. 2016;67(3):483–98.
MLA
Ramezani, Ali, Ziad A Massy, Björn Meijers, et al. “Role of the Gut Microbiome in Uremia: a Potential Therapeutic Target.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES 67.3 (2016): 483–498. Print.
@article{7183021,
  abstract     = {Also known as the {\textacutedbl}second human genome,{\textacutedbl} the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. The symbiotic relationship between host and microbiome is disturbed due to the proliferation of dysbiotic bacteria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fermentation of protein and amino acids by gut bacteria generates excess amounts of potentially toxic compounds such as ammonia, amines, thiols, phenols, and indoles, but the generation of short-chain fatty acids is reduced. Impaired intestinal barrier function in patients with CKD permits translocation of gut-derived uremic toxins into the systemic circulation, contributing to the progression of CKD, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and protein-energy wasting. The field of microbiome research is still nascent, but is evolving rapidly. Establishing symbiosis to treat uremic syndrome is a novel concept, but if proved effective, it will have a significant impact on the management of patients with CKD.},
  author       = {Ramezani, Ali and Massy, Ziad A and Meijers, Bj{\"o}rn and Evenepoel, Pieter and Vanholder, Raymond and Raj, Dominic S},
  issn         = {0272-6386},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES},
  keyword      = {INDOXYL SULFATE,HEMODIALYSIS-PATIENTS,CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS,SMOOTH-MUSCLE-CELLS,HUMAN LARGE-INTESTINE,TRIMETHYLAMINE-N-OXIDE,ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS,P-CRESYL SULFATE,CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE,review,CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,end-stage renal disease (ESRD),chronic kidney disease (CKD),p-cresyl sulfate (PCS),uremic syndrome,indole,phenol,amine,thiol,urea,ammonia,metabolome,microbial metabolite,uremic toxin,Gut microbiome},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {483--498},
  title        = {Role of the gut microbiome in uremia: a potential therapeutic target},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.09.027},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2016},
}

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