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Factors associated with HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Western Kenya : a cross-sectional study

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Abstract
HIV diagnosis is an important step in the HIV cascade of prevention and treatment. However, men who have sex with men in low-and middle-income countries have limited access to HIV care services. We examined factors associated with prior HIV testing among men who have sex with men in western Kenya. We recruited 95 men who have sex with men aged 18 years and older, and who reported at least one sexual contact with a man in the past 6 months; however, this analysis is restricted to 89 participants who completed questions on HIV testing. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with HIV testing in the past one year. Results indicate that 23 (26%) had not been tested in the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that condomless anal sex (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-9.17) and comfort with healthcare providers (odds ratio = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.26) were associated with higher odds of HIV testing in the past 12 months. Experiencing social stigma was associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.94). In multivariable models, social stigma remained significantly associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99) after inclusion of sexual risk and individual level variables. Development of men who have sex with men-sensitive HIV-testing services, addressing stigma, and training healthcare workers to provide culturally sensitive services may assist in effectively engaging men who have sex with men in the HIV treatment cascade.
Keywords
HIV testing, men who have sex with men, stigma, Kenya, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, BLACK-MEN, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, HEALTH, STIGMA, PREVENTION, INFECTION, RISK, CARE, VULNERABILITY

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Chicago
Shangani, Sylvia, Violet Naanyu, Ann Mwangi, Heleen Vermandere, Ethan Mereish, Andrew Obala, Davy Vanden Broeck, John Sidle, and Don Operario. 2017. “Factors Associated with HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Western Kenya : a Cross-sectional Study.” International Journal of Std & Aids 28 (2): 179–187.
APA
Shangani, S., Naanyu, V., Mwangi, A., Vermandere, H., Mereish, E., Obala, A., Vanden Broeck, D., et al. (2017). Factors associated with HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Western Kenya : a cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS, 28(2), 179–187.
Vancouver
1.
Shangani S, Naanyu V, Mwangi A, Vermandere H, Mereish E, Obala A, et al. Factors associated with HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Western Kenya : a cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS. 2017;28(2):179–87.
MLA
Shangani, Sylvia et al. “Factors Associated with HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Western Kenya : a Cross-sectional Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS 28.2 (2017): 179–187. Print.
@article{7178391,
  abstract     = {HIV diagnosis is an important step in the HIV cascade of prevention and treatment. However, men who have sex with men in low-and middle-income countries have limited access to HIV care services. We examined factors associated with prior HIV testing among men who have sex with men in western Kenya. We recruited 95 men who have sex with men aged 18 years and older, and who reported at least one sexual contact with a man in the past 6 months; however, this analysis is restricted to 89 participants who completed questions on HIV testing. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with HIV testing in the past one year. Results indicate that 23 (26%) had not been tested in the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that condomless anal sex (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-9.17) and comfort with healthcare providers (odds ratio = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.26) were associated with higher odds of HIV testing in the past 12 months. Experiencing social stigma was associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.94). In multivariable models, social stigma remained significantly associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99) after inclusion of sexual risk and individual level variables. Development of men who have sex with men-sensitive HIV-testing services, addressing stigma, and training healthcare workers to provide culturally sensitive services may assist in effectively engaging men who have sex with men in the HIV treatment cascade.},
  author       = {Shangani, Sylvia and Naanyu, Violet and Mwangi, Ann and Vermandere, Heleen and Mereish, Ethan and Obala, Andrew and Vanden Broeck, Davy and Sidle, John and Operario, Don},
  issn         = {0956-4624},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS},
  keywords     = {HIV testing,men who have sex with men,stigma,Kenya,SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA,BLACK-MEN,ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY,HEALTH,STIGMA,PREVENTION,INFECTION,RISK,CARE,VULNERABILITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {179--187},
  title        = {Factors associated with HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Western Kenya : a cross-sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462416638967},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2017},
}

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