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Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

(2016) CURRENT BIOLOGY. 26(5). p.654-660
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Abstract
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria [1, 2]. Here, we report that a disabling mutation in one copy of a tandemly duplicated, diaphanous-related formin is perfectly associated with symmetry breaking in the pond snail. This is supported by the observation that an anti-formin drug treatment converts dextral snail embryos to a sinistral phenocopy, and in frogs, drug inhibition or overexpression by microinjection of formin has a chirality-randomizing effect in early (pre-cilia) embryos. Contrary to expectations based on existingmodels [3-5], we discovered asymmetric gene expression in 2- and 4-cell snail embryos, preceding morphological asymmetry. As the formin-actin filament has been shown to be part of an asymmetry-breaking switch in vitro [6, 7], together these results are consistent with the view that animals with diverse body plans may derive their asymmetries from the same intracellular chiral elements [8].
Keywords
EVOLUTION, CHIRALITY, D-QUADRANT, LYMNAEA-STAGNALIS, INHERITANCE, INVERTEBRATES, MECHANISMS, HANDEDNESS, LIMNAEA

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Chicago
Davison, Angus, Gary S McDowell, Jennifer M Holden, Harriet F Johnson, Georgios D Koutsovoulos, M Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, et al. 2016. “Formin Is Associated with Left-right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog.” Current Biology 26 (5): 654–660.
APA
Davison, A., McDowell, G. S., Holden, J. M., Johnson, H. F., Koutsovoulos, G. D., Liu, M. M., Hulpiau, P., et al. (2016). Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 26(5), 654–660.
Vancouver
1.
Davison A, McDowell GS, Holden JM, Johnson HF, Koutsovoulos GD, Liu MM, et al. Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 2016;26(5):654–60.
MLA
Davison, Angus, Gary S McDowell, Jennifer M Holden, et al. “Formin Is Associated with Left-right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog.” CURRENT BIOLOGY 26.5 (2016): 654–660. Print.
@article{7172647,
  abstract     = {While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria [1, 2]. Here, we report that a disabling mutation in one copy of a tandemly duplicated, diaphanous-related formin is perfectly associated with symmetry breaking in the pond snail. This is supported by the observation that an anti-formin drug treatment converts dextral snail embryos to a sinistral phenocopy, and in frogs, drug inhibition or overexpression by microinjection of formin has a chirality-randomizing effect in early (pre-cilia) embryos. Contrary to expectations based on existingmodels [3-5], we discovered asymmetric gene expression in 2- and 4-cell snail embryos, preceding morphological asymmetry. As the formin-actin filament has been shown to be part of an asymmetry-breaking switch in vitro [6, 7], together these results are consistent with the view that animals with diverse body plans may derive their asymmetries from the same intracellular chiral elements [8].},
  author       = {Davison, Angus and McDowell, Gary S and Holden, Jennifer M and Johnson, Harriet F and Koutsovoulos, Georgios D and Liu, M Maureen and Hulpiau, Paco and Van Roy, Frans and Wade, Christopher M and Banerjee, Ruby and Yang, Fengtang and Chiba, Satoshi and Davey, John W and Jackson, Daniel J and Levin, Michael and Blaxter, Mark L},
  issn         = {0960-9822},
  journal      = {CURRENT BIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {654--660},
  title        = {Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.071},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2016},
}

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