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Superficial and deep scapulothoracic muscle electromyographic activity during elevation exercises in the scapular plane

Birgit Castelein UGent, Barbara Cagnie UGent, THIERRY PARLEVLIET and Ann Cools UGent (2016) JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY. 46(3). p.184-193
abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. BACKGROUND: In scapular rehabilitation training, exercises that include a humeral elevation component in the scapular plane are commonly implemented. While performing humeral elevation, the scapula plays an important role, as it has to create a stable basis for the glenohumeral joint. However, a comparison of both deep and superficial muscle activity of the scapula between different types of elevation exercises is lacking and would be helpful for the clinician in choosing exercises. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate scapulothoracic muscle activity during different types of elevation exercises in the scapular plane. METHODS: Scapulothoracic muscle activity was measured in 21 healthy subjects, using fine-wire electromyography in the levator scapulae, pectoralis minor, and rhomboid major muscles and surface electromyography in the upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles. Measurements were conducted while the participants performed the following elevation tasks in the scapular plane: scaption (elevation in the scapular plane), towel wall slide, and elevation with external rotation (Thera-Band). The exercises were performed without and with additional load. Possible differences between the exercises and the load were studied with a linear mixed model. RESULTS: Performing elevation in the scapular plane with an external-rotation component resulted in higher middle trapezius and lower trapezius activity compared to the scaption and wall slide exercises. The upper trapezius was maximally activated during scaption. The pectoralis minor and serratus anterior showed the highest activity during the towel wall slide. The towel wall slide activated the retractors to a lesser degree (middle trapezius, lower trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major). Adding load resulted in higher muscle activity in all muscles, with some muscles showing a different activation paern between the elevation exercises, depending on the load condition. CONCLUSION: Scaption maximally activated the upper trapezius. The addition of an extra external-rotation component may be used when the goal is to activate the lower trapezius and middle trapezius. The towel wall slide exercise was found to increase pectoralis minor activity. Adding load resulted in higher muscle activity. Some muscles showed a different activation paern between the elevation exercises, depending on the loading condition. The findings of this study give information about which elevation exercises a clinician can choose when the aim is to facilitate specific muscle scapulothoracic activity.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
SYMPTOMS, elevation, exercises, scapula, EMG, MOVEMENTS, SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT, ATHLETIC SHOULDER, PECTORALIS MINOR, REHABILITATION, ACTIVATION, ORIENTATION, KINEMATICS, TRAPEZIUS
journal title
JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY
J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.
volume
46
issue
3
pages
184 - 193
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000376460500011
JCR category
REHABILITATION
JCR impact factor
2.825 (2016)
JCR rank
8/65 (2016)
JCR quartile
1 (2016)
ISSN
0190-6011
DOI
10.2519/jospt.2016.5927
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
7165252
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-7165252
date created
2016-03-28 19:28:57
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:45:37
@article{7165252,
  abstract     = {STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. 
BACKGROUND: In scapular rehabilitation training, exercises that include a humeral elevation component in the scapular plane are commonly implemented. While performing humeral elevation, the scapula plays an important role, as it has to create a stable basis for the glenohumeral joint. However, a comparison of both deep and superficial muscle activity of the scapula between different types of elevation exercises is lacking and would be helpful for the clinician in choosing exercises. 
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate scapulothoracic muscle activity during different types of elevation exercises in the scapular plane. 
METHODS: Scapulothoracic muscle activity was measured in 21 healthy subjects, using fine-wire electromyography in the levator scapulae, pectoralis minor, and rhomboid major muscles and surface electromyography in the upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles. Measurements were conducted while the participants performed the following elevation tasks in the scapular plane: scaption (elevation in the scapular plane), towel wall slide, and elevation with external rotation (Thera-Band). The exercises were performed without and with additional load. Possible differences between the exercises and the load were studied with a linear mixed model. 
RESULTS: Performing elevation in the scapular plane with an external-rotation component resulted in higher middle trapezius and lower trapezius activity compared to the scaption and wall slide exercises. The upper trapezius was maximally activated during scaption. The pectoralis minor and serratus anterior showed the highest activity during the towel wall slide. The towel wall slide activated the retractors to a lesser degree (middle trapezius, lower trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major). Adding load resulted in higher muscle activity in all muscles, with some muscles showing a different activation paern between the elevation exercises, depending on the load condition. 
CONCLUSION: Scaption maximally activated the upper trapezius. The addition of an extra external-rotation component may be used when the goal is to activate the lower trapezius and middle trapezius. The towel wall slide exercise was found to increase pectoralis minor activity. Adding load resulted in higher muscle activity. Some muscles showed a different activation paern between the elevation exercises, depending on the loading condition. The findings of this study give information about which elevation exercises a clinician can choose when the aim is to facilitate specific muscle scapulothoracic activity.},
  author       = {Castelein, Birgit and Cagnie, Barbara and PARLEVLIET, THIERRY and Cools, Ann},
  issn         = {0190-6011},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC \& SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY},
  keyword      = {SYMPTOMS,elevation,exercises,scapula,EMG,MOVEMENTS,SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT,ATHLETIC SHOULDER,PECTORALIS MINOR,REHABILITATION,ACTIVATION,ORIENTATION,KINEMATICS,TRAPEZIUS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {184--193},
  title        = {Superficial and deep scapulothoracic muscle electromyographic activity during elevation exercises in the scapular plane},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2016.5927},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2016},
}

Chicago
Castelein, Birgit, Barbara Cagnie, THIERRY PARLEVLIET, and Ann Cools. 2016. “Superficial and Deep Scapulothoracic Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Elevation Exercises in the Scapular Plane.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 46 (3): 184–193.
APA
Castelein, B., Cagnie, B., PARLEVLIET, T., & Cools, A. (2016). Superficial and deep scapulothoracic muscle electromyographic activity during elevation exercises in the scapular plane. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY, 46(3), 184–193.
Vancouver
1.
Castelein B, Cagnie B, PARLEVLIET T, Cools A. Superficial and deep scapulothoracic muscle electromyographic activity during elevation exercises in the scapular plane. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY. 2016;46(3):184–93.
MLA
Castelein, Birgit, Barbara Cagnie, THIERRY PARLEVLIET, et al. “Superficial and Deep Scapulothoracic Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Elevation Exercises in the Scapular Plane.” JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY 46.3 (2016): 184–193. Print.