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Possible influences on the interpretation of functional domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): an explorative study

Bert Celie (UGent) , Jan Boone (UGent) , Jasmien Dumortier (UGent) , Wim Derave (UGent) , Tine De Backer (UGent) and Jan Bourgois (UGent)
(2016) APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY. 70(2). p.363-371
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Abstract
The influence of subcutaneous adipose tissue (ATT) and oxygen (O-2) delivery has been poorly defined in frequency domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of these variables on all FD NIRS responses using a reliable protocol. Moreover, these influences were also investigated when using relative oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and -myoglobin (oxy[Hb+Mb] and deoxy[Hb+Mb]) values (in %). A regression analysis was carried out for ATT and maximal-minimum oxy[Hb+Mb], deoxy[Hb+Mb], oxygen saturation (SmO2), and total hemoglobin (totHb) amplitudes during an incremental cyclic contraction protocol (ICCP) in a group of 45 participants. Moreover, the same analysis was carried out between subcutaneous ATT and the relative oxy- and deoxy[Hb+Mb] values (in %). In the second part of this study, a regression analysis was performed for peak forearm blood flow (FBF) during ICCP and the absolute and relative NIRS values in a group of 37 participants. Significant exponential correlation coefficients were found between ATT and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.53; P<0.001), oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.57; P<0.001), and SmO2 amplitudes (r = 0.57; P<0.001). No significant relations were found between ATT and relative oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.37; P = 0.07) and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.09; P = 0.82). Significant positive correlation coefficients were found between force at exhaustion and maximal FBF (r = 0.66; P<0.001), maximal differences in deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.353; P = 0.032) and totHb (r = 0.512; P = 0.002) while no significant correlation coefficients were found between these maximal force values and maximal differences in oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.267; P = 0.111) and SmO2 (r = -0.267; P = 0.111). Significant linear correlation coefficients were found between FBF and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.51; P = 0.001), oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.50; P = 0.001), SmO2 (r = -0.54; P = 0.001), and totHb amplitude (r = 0.61; P<0.001). No significant correlations were found when using relative oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.01; P = 0.957) and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.02; P = 0.895). Based on these findings, caution is advised when using NIRS values, as subcutaneous ATT and O-2 delivery significantly influence NIRS measurements. To eliminate these influences, use of relative deoxy[Hb+Mb] is advised, especially in clinical settings or in people with a higher subcutaneous ATT layer.
Keywords
CYCLE ERGOMETER, UPTAKE KINETICS, INCREMENTAL HANDGRIP, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, FEMORAL BLOOD-GASES, ADIPOSE-TISSUE THICKNESS, Physiological calibration, Blood flow, ATT, Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, NIRS, Near-infrared spectroscopy, NITRIC-OXIDE, EXERCISE, OXYGENATION, DEOXYGENATION

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Chicago
Celie, Bert, Jan Boone, Jasmien Dumortier, Wim Derave, Tine De Backer, and Jan Bourgois. 2016. “Possible Influences on the Interpretation of Functional Domain (FD) Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): An Explorative Study.” Applied Spectroscopy 70 (2): 363–371.
APA
Celie, B., Boone, J., Dumortier, J., Derave, W., De Backer, T., & Bourgois, J. (2016). Possible influences on the interpretation of functional domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): an explorative study. APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY, 70(2), 363–371.
Vancouver
1.
Celie B, Boone J, Dumortier J, Derave W, De Backer T, Bourgois J. Possible influences on the interpretation of functional domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): an explorative study. APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY. 2016;70(2):363–71.
MLA
Celie, Bert, Jan Boone, Jasmien Dumortier, et al. “Possible Influences on the Interpretation of Functional Domain (FD) Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): An Explorative Study.” APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY 70.2 (2016): 363–371. Print.
@article{7157621,
  abstract     = {The influence of subcutaneous adipose tissue (ATT) and oxygen (O-2) delivery has been poorly defined in frequency domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of these variables on all FD NIRS responses using a reliable protocol. Moreover, these influences were also investigated when using relative oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and -myoglobin (oxy[Hb+Mb] and deoxy[Hb+Mb]) values (in \%). A regression analysis was carried out for ATT and maximal-minimum oxy[Hb+Mb], deoxy[Hb+Mb], oxygen saturation (SmO2), and total hemoglobin (totHb) amplitudes during an incremental cyclic contraction protocol (ICCP) in a group of 45 participants. Moreover, the same analysis was carried out between subcutaneous ATT and the relative oxy- and deoxy[Hb+Mb] values (in \%). In the second part of this study, a regression analysis was performed for peak forearm blood flow (FBF) during ICCP and the absolute and relative NIRS values in a group of 37 participants. Significant exponential correlation coefficients were found between ATT and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.53; P{\textlangle}0.001), oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.57; P{\textlangle}0.001), and SmO2 amplitudes (r = 0.57; P{\textlangle}0.001). No significant relations were found between ATT and relative oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.37; P = 0.07) and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.09; P = 0.82). Significant positive correlation coefficients were found between force at exhaustion and maximal FBF (r = 0.66; P{\textlangle}0.001), maximal differences in deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.353; P = 0.032) and totHb (r = 0.512; P = 0.002) while no significant correlation coefficients were found between these maximal force values and maximal differences in oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.267; P = 0.111) and SmO2 (r = -0.267; P = 0.111). Significant linear correlation coefficients were found between FBF and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = 0.51; P = 0.001), oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.50; P = 0.001), SmO2 (r = -0.54; P = 0.001), and totHb amplitude (r = 0.61; P{\textlangle}0.001). No significant correlations were found when using relative oxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.01; P = 0.957) and deoxy[Hb+Mb] (r = -0.02; P = 0.895). Based on these findings, caution is advised when using NIRS values, as subcutaneous ATT and O-2 delivery significantly influence NIRS measurements. To eliminate these influences, use of relative deoxy[Hb+Mb] is advised, especially in clinical settings or in people with a higher subcutaneous ATT layer.},
  author       = {Celie, Bert and Boone, Jan and Dumortier, Jasmien and Derave, Wim and De Backer, Tine and Bourgois, Jan},
  issn         = {0003-7028},
  journal      = {APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {363--371},
  title        = {Possible influences on the interpretation of functional domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): an explorative study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003702815620562},
  volume       = {70},
  year         = {2016},
}

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