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Background: Evidence for the effect of dietary energy on BMI z-scores in young children is limited. We aim to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. Methods: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. Methods: Subjects were children aged 2-< 10 y old (N = 2753, 48.2 % girls) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline and follow-up examination. Usual EI (kcal/day) was calculated based on the National Cancer Institute-method excluding subjects with implausible reported EI. Effect of age, height and sex-adjusted residuals of EI on BMI z-score was investigated stratified by baseline age-group (2-< 4 y, 4-< 6 y, 6-< 8 y and 8-< 10 y) cross-sectionally using linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders (crude model: age, sex, country; fully adjusted model: plus parental ISCED level, parental BMI, screen time; subgroup analysis: plus objectively measured physical activity). Longitudinal associations were estimated between changes in (Delta) residual EI per year and Delta BMI z-score per year with adjustments analogously to the cross-sectional models but with additional adjustment for residual EI at baseline. Results: Cross-sectionally, positive associations were observed between residual EI and BMI z-score for the full study sample, for boys and in older (>= 6 years) but not in younger children in the crude and fully adjusted model. Longitudinally, small positive associations were observed between Delta residual EI per y on Delta BMI z-score per y for the full study sample and in 4-< 6 y olds in the crude and fully adjusted model. Conclusion: In conclusion, EI above the average intakes for a certain sex, age and height are weakly associated with BMI z-scores in European children. Residual EI may be considered as a useful exposure measure in children as it accounts for growth-related changes in usual EI during childhood.
Keywords
PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, DIETARY-INTAKE, OBESITY, WEIGHT, ADOLESCENTS, ADIPOSITY, CHILDHOOD, NUTRITION, Residual energy intake, Europe, Cohort, BMI z-score, Children, BODY-MASS INDEX

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Chicago
Hebestreit, Antje, Gianvincenzo Barba, Stefaan De Henauw, Gabriele Eiben, Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou, Éva Kovács, Vittorio Krogh, et al. 2016. “Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Energy Intake and BMI Z-score in European Children.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 13.
APA
Hebestreit, Antje, Barba, G., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Hadjigeorgiou, C., Kovács, É., Krogh, V., et al. (2016). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 13.
Vancouver
1.
Hebestreit A, Barba G, De Henauw S, Eiben G, Hadjigeorgiou C, Kovács É, et al. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2016;13.
MLA
Hebestreit, Antje, Gianvincenzo Barba, Stefaan De Henauw, et al. “Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Energy Intake and BMI Z-score in European Children.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 13 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{7145978,
  abstract     = {Background: Evidence for the effect of dietary energy on BMI z-scores in young children is limited. We aim to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. 
Methods: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. 
Methods: Subjects were children aged 2-{\textlangle} 10 y old (N = 2753, 48.2 \% girls) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline and follow-up examination. Usual EI (kcal/day) was calculated based on the National Cancer Institute-method excluding subjects with implausible reported EI. Effect of age, height and sex-adjusted residuals of EI on BMI z-score was investigated stratified by baseline age-group (2-{\textlangle} 4 y, 4-{\textlangle} 6 y, 6-{\textlangle} 8 y and 8-{\textlangle} 10 y) cross-sectionally using linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders (crude model: age, sex, country; fully adjusted model: plus parental ISCED level, parental BMI, screen time; subgroup analysis: plus objectively measured physical activity). Longitudinal associations were estimated between changes in (Delta) residual EI per year and Delta BMI z-score per year with adjustments analogously to the cross-sectional models but with additional adjustment for residual EI at baseline. 
Results: Cross-sectionally, positive associations were observed between residual EI and BMI z-score for the full study sample, for boys and in older ({\textrangle}= 6 years) but not in younger children in the crude and fully adjusted model. Longitudinally, small positive associations were observed between Delta residual EI per y on Delta BMI z-score per y for the full study sample and in 4-{\textlangle} 6 y olds in the crude and fully adjusted model. 
Conclusion: In conclusion, EI above the average intakes for a certain sex, age and height are weakly associated with BMI z-scores in European children. Residual EI may be considered as a useful exposure measure in children as it accounts for growth-related changes in usual EI during childhood.},
  articleno    = {23},
  author       = {Hebestreit, Antje and Barba, Gianvincenzo and De Henauw, Stefaan and Eiben, Gabriele and Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos and Kov{\'a}cs, {\'E}va and Krogh, Vittorio and Moreno, Luis A and Pala, Valeria and Veidebaum, Toomas and Wolters, Maike and B{\"o}rnhorst, Claudia},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0344-3},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2016},
}

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