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Exercise and cognitive functioning in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders : a controlled laboratory study

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Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. BACKGROUND: In addition to persistent pain, people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) commonly deal with cognitive dysfunctions. In healthy individuals, aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive performance, and preliminary evidence in other chronic pain conditions reveals promising results as well. However, there is evidence that people with chronic WAD may show a worsening of the symptom complex following physical exertion. OBJECTIVE: To examine postexercise cognitive performance in people with chronic WAD. METHODS: People with chronic WAD (n = 27) and healthy, inactive: sex- and age-matched controls (n = 27) performed a single bout of an incremental submaximal cycling exercise. Before and after the exercise, participants completed 2 performance-based cognitive tests assessing selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and simple and choice reaction time. RESULTS: At baseline, people with chronic WAD displayed significantly lower scores on sustained attention and simple reaction time (P<.001), but not on selective attention, cognitive inhibition, and choice reaction time (P>.05), compared with healthy controls. Postexercise, both groups showed significantly improved selective attention and choice reaction time (chronic WAD, P =.001; control, P<.001), while simple reaction time significantly increased (P =.037) only in the control group. In both groups, no other significant changes in sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, pain, and fatigue were Observed (P>.05). CONCLUSION: In the short term, postexercise cognitive functioning, pain, and fatigue were not aggravated in people with chronic WAD. However, randomized controlled trials are required to study the longer-term and isolated effects of exercise on cognitive functioning.
Keywords
chronic pain, cognitive performance, exercise, neck, rehabilitation, CHRONIC-FATIGUE-SYNDROME, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL, TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY, TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY, PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, FOLLOW-UP, PAIN, PERFORMANCE, METAANALYSIS

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MLA
Ickmans, Kelly et al. “Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in People with Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders : a Controlled Laboratory Study.” JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY 46.2 (2016): 87–95. Print.
APA
Ickmans, K., Meeus, M., De Kooning, M., De Backer, A., Kooremans, D., Hubloue, I., Schmitz, T., et al. (2016). Exercise and cognitive functioning in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders : a controlled laboratory study. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY, 46(2), 87–95.
Chicago author-date
Ickmans, Kelly, Mira Meeus, Margot De Kooning, Annabelle De Backer, Danielle Kooremans, Ives Hubloue, Tom Schmitz, Michel Van Loo, and Jo Nijs. 2016. “Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in People with Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders : a Controlled Laboratory Study.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 46 (2): 87–95.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ickmans, Kelly, Mira Meeus, Margot De Kooning, Annabelle De Backer, Danielle Kooremans, Ives Hubloue, Tom Schmitz, Michel Van Loo, and Jo Nijs. 2016. “Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in People with Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders : a Controlled Laboratory Study.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 46 (2): 87–95.
Vancouver
1.
Ickmans K, Meeus M, De Kooning M, De Backer A, Kooremans D, Hubloue I, et al. Exercise and cognitive functioning in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders : a controlled laboratory study. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY. 2016;46(2):87–95.
IEEE
[1]
K. Ickmans et al., “Exercise and cognitive functioning in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders : a controlled laboratory study,” JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 87–95, 2016.
@article{7142627,
  abstract     = {STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. 
BACKGROUND: In addition to persistent pain, people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) commonly deal with cognitive dysfunctions. In healthy individuals, aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive performance, and preliminary evidence in other chronic pain conditions reveals promising results as well. However, there is evidence that people with chronic WAD may show a worsening of the symptom complex following physical exertion. 
OBJECTIVE: To examine postexercise cognitive performance in people with chronic WAD. 
METHODS: People with chronic WAD (n = 27) and healthy, inactive: sex- and age-matched controls (n = 27) performed a single bout of an incremental submaximal cycling exercise. Before and after the exercise, participants completed 2 performance-based cognitive tests assessing selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and simple and choice reaction time. 
RESULTS: At baseline, people with chronic WAD displayed significantly lower scores on sustained attention and simple reaction time (P<.001), but not on selective attention, cognitive inhibition, and choice reaction time (P>.05), compared with healthy controls. Postexercise, both groups showed significantly improved selective attention and choice reaction time (chronic WAD, P =.001; control, P<.001), while simple reaction time significantly increased (P =.037) only in the control group. In both groups, no other significant changes in sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, pain, and fatigue were Observed (P>.05). 
CONCLUSION: In the short term, postexercise cognitive functioning, pain, and fatigue were not aggravated in people with chronic WAD. However, randomized controlled trials are required to study the longer-term and isolated effects of exercise on cognitive functioning.},
  author       = {Ickmans, Kelly and Meeus, Mira and De Kooning, Margot and De Backer, Annabelle and Kooremans, Danielle and Hubloue, Ives and Schmitz, Tom and Van Loo, Michel and Nijs, Jo},
  issn         = {0190-6011},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY},
  keywords     = {chronic pain,cognitive performance,exercise,neck,rehabilitation,CHRONIC-FATIGUE-SYNDROME,RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL,TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY,TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY,PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,FOLLOW-UP,PAIN,PERFORMANCE,METAANALYSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {87--95},
  title        = {Exercise and cognitive functioning in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders : a controlled laboratory study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2016.6060},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2016},
}

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