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First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany

(2015) AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA. 36(4). p.411-416
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Abstract
The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is one of the major factors triggering global amphibian declines. A recently discovered species of chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), likely originated in East Asia, has led to massive declines in populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) after its apparent introduction to the Netherlands and Belgium. Here, we report the first detection of this pathogen in Germany where it caused mass mortality of fire salamanders in a captive collection. Salamanders from this collection showed an almost 100% prevalence of infection with Bsal. Supposed Bsal-induced mortality occurred in multiple Salamandra species (S. salamandra, S. algira, S. corsica, and S. infraimmaculata), while Bsal infection was confirmed in nine subspecies of S. salamandra and in S. algira. Our study indicates that this pathogen can potentially infect all fire salamander species and subspecies. If Bsal spreads from captive collections to wild populations, then a similar devastating effect associated with high mortality should be expected.
Keywords
biosafety rules, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, captive collection, Chlamydiaceae, qPCR, Ranavirus, Salamandra salamandra, LETHAL CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, INFECTIOUS-DISEASE, CHYTRID FUNGUS, SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, SALAMANDERS, CONSERVATION, COLLECTIONS, EXTINCTION

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MLA
Sabino Pinto, Joana et al. “First Detection of the Emerging Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Germany.” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA 36.4 (2015): 411–416. Print.
APA
Sabino Pinto, J., Bletz, M., Hendrix, R., Perl, R. B., Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Lötters, S., et al. (2015). First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany. AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA, 36(4), 411–416.
Chicago author-date
Sabino Pinto, Joana, Molly Bletz, Ralf Hendrix, RG Bina Perl, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Stefan Lötters, et al. 2015. “First Detection of the Emerging Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Germany.” Amphibia-reptilia 36 (4): 411–416.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sabino Pinto, Joana, Molly Bletz, Ralf Hendrix, RG Bina Perl, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Stefan Lötters, Frank Mutschmann, Dirk S Schmeller, Benedikt R Schmidt, Michael Veith, Norman Wagner, Miguel Vences, and Sebastian Steinfartz. 2015. “First Detection of the Emerging Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Germany.” Amphibia-reptilia 36 (4): 411–416.
Vancouver
1.
Sabino Pinto J, Bletz M, Hendrix R, Perl RB, Martel A, Pasmans F, et al. First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany. AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA. 2015;36(4):411–6.
IEEE
[1]
J. Sabino Pinto et al., “First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany,” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 411–416, 2015.
@article{7138292,
  abstract     = {The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is one of the major factors triggering global amphibian declines. A recently discovered species of chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), likely originated in East Asia, has led to massive declines in populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) after its apparent introduction to the Netherlands and Belgium. Here, we report the first detection of this pathogen in Germany where it caused mass mortality of fire salamanders in a captive collection. Salamanders from this collection showed an almost 100% prevalence of infection with Bsal. Supposed Bsal-induced mortality occurred in multiple Salamandra species (S. salamandra, S. algira, S. corsica, and S. infraimmaculata), while Bsal infection was confirmed in nine subspecies of S. salamandra and in S. algira. Our study indicates that this pathogen can potentially infect all fire salamander species and subspecies. If Bsal spreads from captive collections to wild populations, then a similar devastating effect associated with high mortality should be expected.},
  author       = {Sabino Pinto, Joana and Bletz, Molly and Hendrix, Ralf and Perl, RG Bina and Martel, An and Pasmans, Frank and Lötters, Stefan and Mutschmann, Frank and Schmeller, Dirk S and Schmidt, Benedikt R and Veith, Michael and Wagner, Norman and Vences, Miguel and Steinfartz, Sebastian},
  issn         = {0173-5373},
  journal      = {AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA},
  keywords     = {biosafety rules,Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis,captive collection,Chlamydiaceae,qPCR,Ranavirus,Salamandra salamandra,LETHAL CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,INFECTIOUS-DISEASE,CHYTRID FUNGUS,SP-NOV,DENDROBATIDIS,AMPHIBIANS,SALAMANDERS,CONSERVATION,COLLECTIONS,EXTINCTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {411--416},
  title        = {First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15685381-00003008},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2015},
}

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