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Simplified methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats and for detection of cats with low or borderline glomerular filtration rate

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Abstract
Objectives: Diagnosis of early feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall indicator of kidney function, but multisample plasma clearance methods to determine GFR are labour intensive, time consuming and stressful for feline patients. This study aimed to develop simplified methods to detect decreased GFR in cats. Methods: Data from a nine-sample combined plasma exogenous creatinine-iohexol clearance test of 73 cats were used. Limited sampling strategies were developed by comparing all sampling time combinations with the complete nine sampling times set and selecting the best sampling time combinations based on maximum relative error. By regression analysis, the ability of routine blood (serum creatinine, serum urea) and urine (urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio) variables to predict GFR or identify cats with low or borderline GFR was examined. Cut-off clearance marker concentrations to predict low or borderline GFR was determined at three time points after marker injection. All procedures were analysed for three clearance markers (exo-iohexol, creatinine, endo-iohexol). Results: For reliable estimation of GFR, at least three blood samples for clinical purposes and five blood samples for research purposes are required. Regression formulae based on routine variables did not reliably predict GFR, but accurately identified cats with low (sensitivity 96.5-98.2%; specificity 60-91.3%) or borderline (sensitivity 91.1-96%; specificity 76.5-81.8%) GFR. Clearance marker concentrations exceeding given marker cut-off concentrations also identified cats with low or borderline GFR with high sensitivities and specificities. Conclusions and relevance: These simplified methods will facilitate the detection of early kidney dysfunction in cats. Early diagnosis allows timely therapeutic intervention, and future studies must reveal whether this improves the long-term outcome of cats with CKD.
Keywords
cat, glomerular filtration rate, PLASMA IOHEXOL CLEARANCE, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, SINGLE-SAMPLE METHOD, EXOGENOUS CREATININE, ENDO-IOHEXOL, HYPERTHYROID CATS, EXO-IOHEXOL, DOGS, HYPERTENSION, PROTEINURIA

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MLA
Paepe, Dominique et al. “Simplified Methods for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cats and for Detection of Cats with Low or Borderline Glomerular Filtration Rate.” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY 17.10 (2015): 889–900. Print.
APA
Paepe, Dominique, Lefebvre, H. P., Concordet, D., van Hoek, I., Croubels, S., & Daminet, S. (2015). Simplified methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats and for detection of cats with low or borderline glomerular filtration rate. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 17(10), 889–900.
Chicago author-date
Paepe, Dominique, Hervé P Lefebvre, Didier Concordet, Ingrid van Hoek, Siska Croubels, and Sylvie Daminet. 2015. “Simplified Methods for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cats and for Detection of Cats with Low or Borderline Glomerular Filtration Rate.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (10): 889–900.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Paepe, Dominique, Hervé P Lefebvre, Didier Concordet, Ingrid van Hoek, Siska Croubels, and Sylvie Daminet. 2015. “Simplified Methods for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cats and for Detection of Cats with Low or Borderline Glomerular Filtration Rate.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (10): 889–900.
Vancouver
1.
Paepe D, Lefebvre HP, Concordet D, van Hoek I, Croubels S, Daminet S. Simplified methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats and for detection of cats with low or borderline glomerular filtration rate. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2015;17(10):889–900.
IEEE
[1]
D. Paepe, H. P. Lefebvre, D. Concordet, I. van Hoek, S. Croubels, and S. Daminet, “Simplified methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats and for detection of cats with low or borderline glomerular filtration rate,” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 889–900, 2015.
@article{7138125,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Diagnosis of early feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall indicator of kidney function, but multisample plasma clearance methods to determine GFR are labour intensive, time consuming and stressful for feline patients. This study aimed to develop simplified methods to detect decreased GFR in cats. 
Methods: Data from a nine-sample combined plasma exogenous creatinine-iohexol clearance test of 73 cats were used. Limited sampling strategies were developed by comparing all sampling time combinations with the complete nine sampling times set and selecting the best sampling time combinations based on maximum relative error. By regression analysis, the ability of routine blood (serum creatinine, serum urea) and urine (urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio) variables to predict GFR or identify cats with low or borderline GFR was examined. Cut-off clearance marker concentrations to predict low or borderline GFR was determined at three time points after marker injection. All procedures were analysed for three clearance markers (exo-iohexol, creatinine, endo-iohexol). 
Results: For reliable estimation of GFR, at least three blood samples for clinical purposes and five blood samples for research purposes are required. Regression formulae based on routine variables did not reliably predict GFR, but accurately identified cats with low (sensitivity 96.5-98.2%; specificity 60-91.3%) or borderline (sensitivity 91.1-96%; specificity 76.5-81.8%) GFR. Clearance marker concentrations exceeding given marker cut-off concentrations also identified cats with low or borderline GFR with high sensitivities and specificities. 
Conclusions and relevance: These simplified methods will facilitate the detection of early kidney dysfunction in cats. Early diagnosis allows timely therapeutic intervention, and future studies must reveal whether this improves the long-term outcome of cats with CKD.},
  author       = {Paepe, Dominique and Lefebvre, Hervé P and Concordet, Didier and van Hoek, Ingrid and Croubels, Siska and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1098-612X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY},
  keywords     = {cat,glomerular filtration rate,PLASMA IOHEXOL CLEARANCE,CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,SINGLE-SAMPLE METHOD,EXOGENOUS CREATININE,ENDO-IOHEXOL,HYPERTHYROID CATS,EXO-IOHEXOL,DOGS,HYPERTENSION,PROTEINURIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {889--900},
  title        = {Simplified methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats and for detection of cats with low or borderline glomerular filtration rate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X14561106},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2015},
}

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