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Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats

Dominique Paepe (UGent) , Liesbeth Ghys (UGent) , Pascale Smets (UGent) , Hervé P Lefebvre, Siska Croubels (UGent) and Sylvie Daminet (UGent)
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Abstract
Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. Methods: Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. Results: Diabetic cats had significantly (mean SD) lower sCreat (123 +/- 38 vs 243 +/- 80 mu mol/l), sUrea (11 +/- 3 vs 18 +/- 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 +/- 31 vs 173 +/- 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.018 +/- 0.006) and GFR (2.0 +/- 0.7 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.046 +/- 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. Conclusions and relevance: Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated.
Keywords
ENDO-IOHEXOL, PLASMA-CLEARANCE, SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION, HYPERTHYROID CATS, EXOGENOUS CREATININE, CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE, RETINOL-BINDING-PROTEIN, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cat, Glomerular filtration, NATURAL-HISTORY, EXO-IOHEXOL, NEPHROPATHY

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MLA
Paepe, Dominique et al. “Routine Kidney Variables, Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Cystatin C in Cats with Diabetes Mellitus, Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Cats.” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY 17.10 (2015): 880–888. Print.
APA
Paepe, Dominique, Ghys, L., Smets, P., Lefebvre, H. P., Croubels, S., & Daminet, S. (2015). Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 17(10), 880–888.
Chicago author-date
Paepe, Dominique, Liesbeth Ghys, Pascale Smets, Hervé P Lefebvre, Siska Croubels, and Sylvie Daminet. 2015. “Routine Kidney Variables, Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Cystatin C in Cats with Diabetes Mellitus, Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Cats.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (10): 880–888.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Paepe, Dominique, Liesbeth Ghys, Pascale Smets, Hervé P Lefebvre, Siska Croubels, and Sylvie Daminet. 2015. “Routine Kidney Variables, Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Cystatin C in Cats with Diabetes Mellitus, Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Cats.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (10): 880–888.
Vancouver
1.
Paepe D, Ghys L, Smets P, Lefebvre HP, Croubels S, Daminet S. Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2015;17(10):880–8.
IEEE
[1]
D. Paepe, L. Ghys, P. Smets, H. P. Lefebvre, S. Croubels, and S. Daminet, “Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats,” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 880–888, 2015.
@article{7138122,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. 
Methods: Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. 
Results: Diabetic cats had significantly (mean SD) lower sCreat (123 +/- 38 vs 243 +/- 80 mu mol/l), sUrea (11 +/- 3 vs 18 +/- 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 +/- 31 vs 173 +/- 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.018 +/- 0.006) and GFR (2.0 +/- 0.7 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.046 +/- 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. 
Conclusions and relevance: Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated.},
  author       = {Paepe, Dominique and Ghys, Liesbeth and Smets, Pascale and Lefebvre, Hervé P and Croubels, Siska and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1098-612X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY},
  keywords     = {ENDO-IOHEXOL,PLASMA-CLEARANCE,SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION,HYPERTHYROID CATS,EXOGENOUS CREATININE,CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE,RETINOL-BINDING-PROTEIN,diabetes,chronic kidney disease,cat,Glomerular filtration,NATURAL-HISTORY,EXO-IOHEXOL,NEPHROPATHY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {880--888},
  title        = {Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X14559788},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2015},
}

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