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Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats

Dominique Paepe (UGent) , Liesbeth Ghys (UGent) , Pascale Smets (UGent) , Hervé P Lefebvre, Siska Croubels (UGent) and Sylvie Daminet (UGent)
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Abstract
Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. Methods: Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. Results: Diabetic cats had significantly (mean SD) lower sCreat (123 +/- 38 vs 243 +/- 80 mu mol/l), sUrea (11 +/- 3 vs 18 +/- 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 +/- 31 vs 173 +/- 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.018 +/- 0.006) and GFR (2.0 +/- 0.7 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.046 +/- 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. Conclusions and relevance: Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated.
Keywords
ENDO-IOHEXOL, PLASMA-CLEARANCE, SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION, HYPERTHYROID CATS, EXOGENOUS CREATININE, CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE, RETINOL-BINDING-PROTEIN, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cat, Glomerular filtration, NATURAL-HISTORY, EXO-IOHEXOL, NEPHROPATHY

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Chicago
Paepe, Dominique, Liesbeth Ghys, Pascale Smets, Hervé P Lefebvre, Siska Croubels, and Sylvie Daminet. 2015. “Routine Kidney Variables, Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Cystatin C in Cats with Diabetes Mellitus, Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Cats.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (10): 880–888.
APA
Paepe, Dominique, Ghys, L., Smets, P., Lefebvre, H. P., Croubels, S., & Daminet, S. (2015). Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 17(10), 880–888.
Vancouver
1.
Paepe D, Ghys L, Smets P, Lefebvre HP, Croubels S, Daminet S. Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2015;17(10):880–8.
MLA
Paepe, Dominique, Liesbeth Ghys, Pascale Smets, et al. “Routine Kidney Variables, Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Cystatin C in Cats with Diabetes Mellitus, Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Cats.” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY 17.10 (2015): 880–888. Print.
@article{7138122,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. 
Methods: Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. 
Results: Diabetic cats had significantly (mean SD) lower sCreat (123 +/- 38 vs 243 +/- 80 mu mol/l), sUrea (11 +/- 3 vs 18 +/- 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 +/- 31 vs 173 +/- 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.018 +/- 0.006) and GFR (2.0 +/- 0.7 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 +/- 0.012 vs 1.046 +/- 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC {\textrangle}0.4) was present in 39\% of diabetic cats, in 30\% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. 
Conclusions and relevance: Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated.},
  author       = {Paepe, Dominique and Ghys, Liesbeth and Smets, Pascale and Lefebvre, Herv{\'e} P and Croubels, Siska and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1098-612X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {880--888},
  title        = {Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X14559788},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2015},
}

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