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Prevalence and genetic diversity of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Belgian pork

(2016) JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION. 79(1). p.82-89
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Abstract
Since the first description of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), a high prevalence was observed in pigs. At present, questions remain about the transmission of LA-MRSA to the general human population through pork. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of LA-MRSA in Belgian pork and to determine the role of the pork production chain and butcheries in transmission of LA-MRSA to the human population. Pig meat samples (chops, bacon, minced pork, ribs, forelimbs, and ears; n=137) originating from four butcheries (A through D) were spread plated on ChromID MRSA plates both before and after overnight enrichment culture. Suspect colonies were confirmed using a MRSA-specific triplex PCR assay and a CC398-specific PCR assay. The isolates (n = 147) were further characterized by SCCmec typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, a selection of isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Direct plating revealed a MRSA prevalence of 8%. After enrichment, MRSA was isolated from 98 (72%) of 137 samples of which the majority were from rib, ear, and forelimb. The majority (97%) of obtained isolates belonged to CC398, the main LA-MRSA type. A high level of genetic diversity was noted among the isolates from one butchery. Thirty antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were found; 13 and 9% of the isolates had Cip-Tet-Tri and Gen-Kan-Tet-Tob-Tri profiles, respectively. These results indicate the importance of enrichment for MRSA detection of pork. The observed genetic diversity of the isolates indicated that the pork production chain can be considered a source of multiple MRSA types that could be transmitted to the human population through cross-contaminated meat.
Keywords
MRSA, STRATEGY, SLAUGHTERHOUSE WORKERS, RETAIL MEAT, MULTIPLEX PCR, PIGS, ANIMALS, PRODUCTS, CARRIAGE, NETHERLANDS

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Chicago
Verhegghe, Marijke, Florence Crombé, Kaat Luyckx, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick Butaye, Lieve Herman, Marc Heyndrickx, and Geertrui Rasschaert. 2016. “Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus on Belgian Pork.” Journal of Food Protection 79 (1): 82–89.
APA
Verhegghe, M., Crombé, F., Luyckx, K., Haesebrouck, F., Butaye, P., Herman, L., Heyndrickx, M., et al. (2016). Prevalence and genetic diversity of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Belgian pork. JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION, 79(1), 82–89.
Vancouver
1.
Verhegghe M, Crombé F, Luyckx K, Haesebrouck F, Butaye P, Herman L, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Belgian pork. JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION. 2016;79(1):82–9.
MLA
Verhegghe, Marijke, Florence Crombé, Kaat Luyckx, et al. “Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus on Belgian Pork.” JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION 79.1 (2016): 82–89. Print.
@article{7138037,
  abstract     = {Since the first description of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), a high prevalence was observed in pigs. At present, questions remain about the transmission of LA-MRSA to the general human population through pork. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of LA-MRSA in Belgian pork and to determine the role of the pork production chain and butcheries in transmission of LA-MRSA to the human population. Pig meat samples (chops, bacon, minced pork, ribs, forelimbs, and ears; n=137) originating from four butcheries (A through D) were spread plated on ChromID MRSA plates both before and after overnight enrichment culture. Suspect colonies were confirmed using a MRSA-specific triplex PCR assay and a CC398-specific PCR assay. The isolates (n = 147) were further characterized by SCCmec typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, a selection of isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Direct plating revealed a MRSA prevalence of 8\%. After enrichment, MRSA was isolated from 98 (72\%) of 137 samples of which the majority were from rib, ear, and forelimb. The majority (97\%) of obtained isolates belonged to CC398, the main LA-MRSA type. A high level of genetic diversity was noted among the isolates from one butchery. Thirty antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were found; 13 and 9\% of the isolates had Cip-Tet-Tri and Gen-Kan-Tet-Tob-Tri profiles, respectively. These results indicate the importance of enrichment for MRSA detection of pork. The observed genetic diversity of the isolates indicated that the pork production chain can be considered a source of multiple MRSA types that could be transmitted to the human population through cross-contaminated meat.},
  author       = {Verhegghe, Marijke and Cromb{\'e}, Florence and Luyckx, Kaat and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Butaye, Patrick and Herman, Lieve and Heyndrickx, Marc and Rasschaert, Geertrui},
  issn         = {0362-028X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION},
  keyword      = {MRSA,STRATEGY,SLAUGHTERHOUSE WORKERS,RETAIL MEAT,MULTIPLEX PCR,PIGS,ANIMALS,PRODUCTS,CARRIAGE,NETHERLANDS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {82--89},
  title        = {Prevalence and genetic diversity of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Belgian pork},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-266},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2016},
}

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