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The double challenge of resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease

(2015) LANCET. 386(10003). p.1588-1598
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Abstract
Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease is the most frequent of several patient factors or comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease, while chronic kidney disease is associated with an impaired prognosis in patients with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation, are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We discuss resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 (ie, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and not on dialysis), in terms of worldwide epidemiology, outcomes, causes and pathophysiology, evidence-based treatment, and a call for action.
Keywords
BLOOD-PRESSURE CONTROL, RENAL-ARTERY STENOSIS, BAROREFLEX ACTIVATION THERAPY, CLINICAL-PRACTICE GUIDELINE, RANDOMIZED-TRIAL, DIETARY-SODIUM, UNITED-STATES, SYMPATHETIC DENERVATION, PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE

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Chicago
Rossignol, Patrick, Ziad A Massy, Michel Azizi, George Bakris, Eberhard Ritz, Adrian Covic, David Goldsmith, et al. 2015. “The Double Challenge of Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease.” Lancet 386 (10003): 1588–1598.
APA
Rossignol, P., Massy, Z. A., Azizi, M., Bakris, G., Ritz, E., Covic, A., Goldsmith, D., et al. (2015). The double challenge of resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease. LANCET, 386(10003), 1588–1598.
Vancouver
1.
Rossignol P, Massy ZA, Azizi M, Bakris G, Ritz E, Covic A, et al. The double challenge of resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease. LANCET. 2015;386(10003):1588–98.
MLA
Rossignol, Patrick, Ziad A Massy, Michel Azizi, et al. “The Double Challenge of Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease.” LANCET 386.10003 (2015): 1588–1598. Print.
@article{7095114,
  abstract     = {Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease is the most frequent of several patient factors or comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease, while chronic kidney disease is associated with an impaired prognosis in patients with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation, are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We discuss resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 (ie, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and not on dialysis), in terms of worldwide epidemiology, outcomes, causes and pathophysiology, evidence-based treatment, and a call for action.},
  author       = {Rossignol, Patrick and Massy, Ziad A and Azizi, Michel and Bakris, George and Ritz, Eberhard and Covic, Adrian and Goldsmith, David and Heine, Gunnar H and Jager, Kitty J and Kanbay, Mehmet and Mallamaci, Francesca and Ortiz, Alberto and Vanholder, Raymond and Wiecek, Andrzej and Zoccali, Carmine and London, G{\'e}rard Michel and Stengel, B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte and Fouque, Denis},
  issn         = {0140-6736},
  journal      = {LANCET},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10003},
  pages        = {1588--1598},
  title        = {The double challenge of resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60126-X},
  volume       = {386},
  year         = {2015},
}

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