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Platinum recovery from synthetic extreme environments by halophilic bacteria

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Abstract
Metal recycling based on urban mining needs to be established to tackle the increasing supply risk of critical metals such as platinum. Presently, efficient strategies are missing for the recovery of platinum from diluted industrial process streams, often characterized by extremely low pHs and high salt concentrations. In this research, halophilic mixed cultures were employed for the biological recovery of platinum (Pt). Halophilic bacteria were enriched from Artemia cysts, living in salt lakes, in different salt matrices (sea salt mixture and NH4Cl; 20-210 g L-1 salts) and at low to neutral pH (pH 3-7). The main taxonomic families present in the halophilic cultures were Halomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Idiomarinaceae. The halophilic cultures were able to recover >98% Pt(II) and >97% Pt(IV) at pH 2 within 3-21 h (4-453 mg Pt-recovered h(-1) g(-1) biomass). X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction to Pt(0) and transmission electron microscopy revealed both intra- and extracellular Pt precipitates, with median diameters of 9-30 nm and 11-13 nm, for Pt(II) and Pt(IV), respectively. Flow cytometric membrane integrity staining demonstrated the preservation of cell viability during platinum recovery. This study demonstrates the Pt recovery potential of halophilic mixed cultures in acidic saline conditions.
Keywords
Platinum precipitation, Bioreduction, Resource recovery, WASTE, PALLADIUM, NANOPARTICLES, PRECIOUS METALS, SINGLE-ATOM, XANES, SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA, LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES, GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, CRITICAL METALS, MICROORGANISMS

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Chicago
Maes, Synthia, Ruben Props, Jeffrey P Fitts, Rebecca De Smet, Ramiro Vilchez Vargas, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Frank Vanhaecke, Nico Boon, and Tom Hennebel. 2016. “Platinum Recovery from Synthetic Extreme Environments by Halophilic Bacteria.” Environmental Science & Technology 50 (5): 2619–2626.
APA
Maes, Synthia, Props, R., Fitts, J. P., De Smet, R., Vilchez Vargas, R., Vital, M., Pieper, D. H., et al. (2016). Platinum recovery from synthetic extreme environments by halophilic bacteria. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 50(5), 2619–2626.
Vancouver
1.
Maes S, Props R, Fitts JP, De Smet R, Vilchez Vargas R, Vital M, et al. Platinum recovery from synthetic extreme environments by halophilic bacteria. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2016;50(5):2619–26.
MLA
Maes, Synthia, Ruben Props, Jeffrey P Fitts, et al. “Platinum Recovery from Synthetic Extreme Environments by Halophilic Bacteria.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 50.5 (2016): 2619–2626. Print.
@article{7094683,
  abstract     = {Metal recycling based on urban mining needs to be established to tackle the increasing supply risk of critical metals such as platinum. Presently, efficient strategies are missing for the recovery of platinum from diluted industrial process streams, often characterized by extremely low pHs and high salt concentrations. In this research, halophilic mixed cultures were employed for the biological recovery of platinum (Pt). Halophilic bacteria were enriched from Artemia cysts, living in salt lakes, in different salt matrices (sea salt mixture and NH4Cl; 20-210 g L-1 salts) and at low to neutral pH (pH 3-7). The main taxonomic families present in the halophilic cultures were Halomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Idiomarinaceae. The halophilic cultures were able to recover {\textrangle}98\% Pt(II) and {\textrangle}97\% Pt(IV) at pH 2 within 3-21 h (4-453 mg Pt-recovered h(-1) g(-1) biomass). X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction to Pt(0) and transmission electron microscopy revealed both intra- and extracellular Pt precipitates, with median diameters of 9-30 nm and 11-13 nm, for Pt(II) and Pt(IV), respectively. Flow cytometric membrane integrity staining demonstrated the preservation of cell viability during platinum recovery. This study demonstrates the Pt recovery potential of halophilic mixed cultures in acidic saline conditions.},
  author       = {Maes, Synthia and Props, Ruben and Fitts, Jeffrey P and De Smet, Rebecca and Vilchez Vargas, Ramiro and Vital, Marius and Pieper, Dietmar H and Vanhaecke, Frank and Boon, Nico and Hennebel, Tom},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE \& TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {Platinum precipitation,Bioreduction,Resource recovery,WASTE,PALLADIUM,NANOPARTICLES,PRECIOUS METALS,SINGLE-ATOM,XANES,SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA,LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES,GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA,CRITICAL METALS,MICROORGANISMS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {2619--2626},
  title        = {Platinum recovery from synthetic extreme environments by halophilic bacteria},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05355},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2016},
}

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