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Cyclic movement frequency is associated with muscle typology in athletes

Tine Bex (UGent) , Audrey Baguet (UGent) , Eric Achten (UGent) , Peter Aerts (UGent) , Dirk De Clercq (UGent) and Wim Derave (UGent)
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Abstract
There is a continuing research interest in the muscle fiber type composition (MFTC) of athletes. Recently, muscle carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) was developed as a new non-invasive method to estimate MFTC. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand estimated MFTC in relation to (a) different disciplines within one sport; (b) cyclic sport exercise characteristics; (c) within-athlete variability; and (d) athlete level. A total of 111 elite athletes (74 runners, 7 triathletes, 11 swimmers, 14 cyclists and 5 kayakers) and 188 controls were recruited to measure muscle carnosine in gastrocnemius and deltoid muscle by 1 H-MRS. Within sport disciplines, athletes were divided into subgroups (sprint-, intermediate-, and endurance-type). The controls were used as reference population to allow expression of the athletes' data as Z-scores. Within different sports, endurance-type athletes systematically showed the lowest Z-score compared to sprint-type athletes, with intermediate-type athletes always situated in between. Across the different sports disciplines, carnosine content showed the strongest significant correlation with cyclic movement frequency (R = 0.86, P = 0.001). Both within and between different cyclic sports, estimated MFTC was divergent between sprint- and endurance-type athletes. Cyclic movement frequency, rather than exercise duration came out as the most determining factor for the optimal estimated MFTC in elite athletes.
Keywords
Cyclic sports, contractile properties, carnosine, BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION, HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE, FIBER-TYPE PROPORTION, UNTRAINED MUSCLES, ENZYME-ACTIVITIES, CARNOSINE, PERFORMANCE, EXERCISE, RUNNERS

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Chicago
Bex, Tine, Audrey Baguet, Eric Achten, Peter Aerts, Dirk De Clercq, and Wim Derave. 2017. “Cyclic Movement Frequency Is Associated with Muscle Typology in Athletes.” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 27 (2): 223–229.
APA
Bex, T., Baguet, A., Achten, E., Aerts, P., De Clercq, D., & Derave, W. (2017). Cyclic movement frequency is associated with muscle typology in athletes. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS, 27(2), 223–229.
Vancouver
1.
Bex T, Baguet A, Achten E, Aerts P, De Clercq D, Derave W. Cyclic movement frequency is associated with muscle typology in athletes. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS. 2017;27(2):223–9.
MLA
Bex, Tine, Audrey Baguet, Eric Achten, et al. “Cyclic Movement Frequency Is Associated with Muscle Typology in Athletes.” SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS 27.2 (2017): 223–229. Print.
@article{7088260,
  abstract     = {There is a continuing research interest in the muscle fiber type composition (MFTC) of athletes. Recently, muscle carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) was developed as a new non-invasive method to estimate MFTC. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand estimated MFTC in relation to (a) different disciplines within one sport; (b) cyclic sport exercise characteristics; (c) within-athlete variability; and (d) athlete level. A total of 111 elite athletes (74 runners, 7 triathletes, 11 swimmers, 14 cyclists and 5 kayakers) and 188 controls were recruited to measure muscle carnosine in gastrocnemius and deltoid muscle by 1 H-MRS. Within sport disciplines, athletes were divided into subgroups (sprint-, intermediate-, and endurance-type). The controls were used as reference population to allow expression of the athletes' data as Z-scores. Within different sports, endurance-type athletes systematically showed the lowest Z-score compared to sprint-type athletes, with intermediate-type athletes always situated in between. Across the different sports disciplines, carnosine content showed the strongest significant correlation with cyclic movement frequency (R = 0.86, P = 0.001). Both within and between different cyclic sports, estimated MFTC was divergent between sprint- and endurance-type athletes. Cyclic movement frequency, rather than exercise duration came out as the most determining factor for the optimal estimated MFTC in elite athletes.},
  author       = {Bex, Tine and Baguet, Audrey and Achten, Eric and Aerts, Peter and De Clercq, Dirk and Derave, Wim},
  issn         = {0905-7188},
  journal      = {SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS},
  keywords     = {Cyclic sports,contractile properties,carnosine,BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION,HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE,FIBER-TYPE PROPORTION,UNTRAINED MUSCLES,ENZYME-ACTIVITIES,CARNOSINE,PERFORMANCE,EXERCISE,RUNNERS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {223--229},
  title        = {Cyclic movement frequency is associated with muscle typology in athletes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.12648},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2017},
}

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