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Estimation of the unregistered inflow of electrical and electronic equipment to a domestic market : a case study on televisions in Vietnam

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Abstract
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated issues. However, obtaining an accurate estimation of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called “invisible”) in fl ow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this invisible inflow, this study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called “visible”, sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV in fl ow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This fi rst estimation of the invisible EEE in fl ow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future.
Keywords
TV, waste electronic and electronical equipment, EEE, WEEE, Electronic and electronical equipment, BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS, PRODUCT LIFE-SPAN, E-WASTE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, FLOW-ANALYSIS, HEAVY-METALS, GENERATION, CHINA, APPLIANCES, COMMODITIES

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MLA
Tran, Phuong Ha, et al. “Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market : A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 5, 2016, pp. 2424–33.
APA
Tran, P. H., Wang, F., Dewulf, J., Huynh, T.-H., & Schaubroeck, T. (2016). Estimation of the unregistered inflow of electrical and electronic equipment to a domestic market : a case study on televisions in Vietnam. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 50(5), 2424–2433.
Chicago author-date
Tran, Phuong Ha, Feng Wang, Jo Dewulf, Trung-Hai Huynh, and Thomas Schaubroeck. 2016. “Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market : A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 50 (5): 2424–33.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Tran, Phuong Ha, Feng Wang, Jo Dewulf, Trung-Hai Huynh, and Thomas Schaubroeck. 2016. “Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market : A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 50 (5): 2424–2433.
Vancouver
1.
Tran PH, Wang F, Dewulf J, Huynh T-H, Schaubroeck T. Estimation of the unregistered inflow of electrical and electronic equipment to a domestic market : a case study on televisions in Vietnam. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2016;50(5):2424–33.
IEEE
[1]
P. H. Tran, F. Wang, J. Dewulf, T.-H. Huynh, and T. Schaubroeck, “Estimation of the unregistered inflow of electrical and electronic equipment to a domestic market : a case study on televisions in Vietnam,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 2424–2433, 2016.
@article{7086802,
  abstract     = {Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated  issues.  However,  obtaining  an  accurate  estimation  of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called “invisible”) in fl ow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and  quantitatively  investigate  this  invisible  inflow,  this  study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called “visible”, sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV in fl ow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This fi rst estimation of the invisible EEE in fl ow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future.},
  author       = {Tran, Phuong Ha and Wang, Feng and Dewulf, Jo and Huynh, Trung-Hai and Schaubroeck, Thomas},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {TV,waste electronic and electronical equipment,EEE,WEEE,Electronic and electronical equipment,BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS,PRODUCT LIFE-SPAN,E-WASTE,PERSONAL COMPUTERS,FLOW-ANALYSIS,HEAVY-METALS,GENERATION,CHINA,APPLIANCES,COMMODITIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {2424--2433},
  title        = {Estimation of the unregistered inflow of electrical and electronic equipment to a domestic market : a case study on televisions in Vietnam},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01388},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2016},
}

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