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Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep

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Abstract
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an Orthobunyavirus that induces abortion, stillbirths and congenital malformations in ruminants. SBV infection induces a long lasting seroconversion under natural conditions. The persistence of the protective immunity and the isotype specific antibody response upon SBV infection of sheep has however not been studied in detail. Five sheep were kept in BSL3 facilities for more than 16 months and subjected to repeated SBV infections. Blood was regularly sampled and organs were collected at euthanasia. The presence of SBV RNA in serum and organs was measured with quantitative real-time PCR. The appearance and persistence of neutralizing and SBV nucleoprotein (N) isotype specific antibodies was determined with virus neutralization tests (VNT) and ELISAs. The primo SBV infection protected ewes against clinical signs, viraemia and virus replication in organs upon challenge infections more than 15 months later. Production of neutralizing SBV specific antibodies was first detected around 6 days post primo-inoculation with VNT and correlated with the appearance of SBV-N specific IgM antibodies. These IgM antibodies remained present for 2 weeks. SBV-N specific IgG antibodies were first detected between 10 and 21 dpi and reached a plateau at 28 dpi. This plateau remained consistently high and no significant decrease in titre was found over a period of more than 1 year. Similar results were found for the neutralising antibody response. In conclusion, the SBV specific IgM response probably eliminates SBV from the blood and the protective immunity induced by SBV infection protects sheep against reinfection for at least 16 months.
Keywords
AKABANE VIRUS, REQUIRING NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY, CATTLE, COMPLEMENT, SERUM, IMMUNIZATION, BLUETONGUE, CHALLENGE, RUMINANTS, GERMANY

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Chicago
Poskin, Antoine, Stephanie Verite, Loic Comtet, Yves Van der Stede, Brigitte Cay, and Nick De Regge. 2015. “Persistence of the Protective Immunity and Kinetics of the Isotype Specific Antibody Response Against the Viral Nucleocapsid Protein After Experimental Schmallenberg Virus Infection of Sheep.” Veterinary Research 46.
APA
Poskin, A., Verite, S., Comtet, L., Van der Stede, Y., Cay, B., & De Regge, N. (2015). Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 46.
Vancouver
1.
Poskin A, Verite S, Comtet L, Van der Stede Y, Cay B, De Regge N. Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2015;46.
MLA
Poskin, Antoine, Stephanie Verite, Loic Comtet, et al. “Persistence of the Protective Immunity and Kinetics of the Isotype Specific Antibody Response Against the Viral Nucleocapsid Protein After Experimental Schmallenberg Virus Infection of Sheep.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 46 (2015): n. pag. Print.
@article{7071924,
  abstract     = {Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an Orthobunyavirus that induces abortion, stillbirths and congenital malformations in ruminants. SBV infection induces a long lasting seroconversion under natural conditions. The persistence of the protective immunity and the isotype specific antibody response upon SBV infection of sheep has however not been studied in detail. Five sheep were kept in BSL3 facilities for more than 16 months and subjected to repeated SBV infections. Blood was regularly sampled and organs were collected at euthanasia. The presence of SBV RNA in serum and organs was measured with quantitative real-time PCR. The appearance and persistence of neutralizing and SBV nucleoprotein (N) isotype specific antibodies was determined with virus neutralization tests (VNT) and ELISAs. The primo SBV infection protected ewes against clinical signs, viraemia and virus replication in organs upon challenge infections more than 15 months later. Production of neutralizing SBV specific antibodies was first detected around 6 days post primo-inoculation with VNT and correlated with the appearance of SBV-N specific IgM antibodies. These IgM antibodies remained present for 2 weeks. SBV-N specific IgG antibodies were first detected between 10 and 21 dpi and reached a plateau at 28 dpi. This plateau remained consistently high and no significant decrease in titre was found over a period of more than 1 year. Similar results were found for the neutralising antibody response. In conclusion, the SBV specific IgM response probably eliminates SBV from the blood and the protective immunity induced by SBV infection protects sheep against reinfection for at least 16 months.},
  articleno    = {119},
  author       = {Poskin, Antoine and Verite, Stephanie and Comtet, Loic and Van der Stede, Yves and Cay, Brigitte and De Regge, Nick},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {AKABANE VIRUS,REQUIRING NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY,CATTLE,COMPLEMENT,SERUM,IMMUNIZATION,BLUETONGUE,CHALLENGE,RUMINANTS,GERMANY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-015-0260-6},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2015},
}

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