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Efficacy and reduced fuel use for hot water weed control on pavements

Benny De Cauwer (UGent) , S Bogaert, Sofie Claerhout (UGent) , Robert Bulcke (UGent) and Dirk Reheul (UGent)
(2015) WEED RESEARCH. 55(2). p.195-205
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Abstract
Non-chemical weed control on pavements needs more frequently repeated treatments than the application of glyphosate and often uses large amounts of fuel. To obtain effective hot water control with minimum energy consumption, an in-depth study of efficacy-influencing factors was performed. Three dose-response pot experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate the impact of growth stage (39, 60 and 81day old), water temperature (78, 88 and 98 degrees C), time of the day (2, 7 and 12h after sunrise) and treatment interval (2, 3, 4 and 6week intervals) on hot water sensitivity of seven weed species that are hard to control on pavements. Responses to hot water were quantified by weed coverage and total dry biomass. In general, hot water sensitivity was highest for species with large planophile leaves and lowest for grasses with small erectophile leaves. Most species were twofold to sixfold more sensitive to water at 98 degrees C than at 78 and 88 degrees C, particularly when treated at early growth stages. Among treatment intervals, treating at 3-week intervals was up to twofold more effective and energy efficient than treating at 6-week intervals. Sensitivity was about twofold lower in the morning than in the afternoon. For effective control of weeds, while using less fuel, it is recommended to apply hot water in the late afternoon, to operate at high water temperature (98 degrees C) and to treat plants as young as possible at 3-week intervals.
Keywords
water temperature, energy dose, time of the day, TRAFFIC ISLANDS, HARD SURFACES, TEMPERATURE, thermal weed control, hot water, hard surfaces, dose-response, treatment interval

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Chicago
De Cauwer, Benny, S Bogaert, Sofie Claerhout, Robert Bulcke, and Dirk Reheul. 2015. “Efficacy and Reduced Fuel Use for Hot Water Weed Control on Pavements.” Weed Research 55 (2): 195–205.
APA
De Cauwer, Benny, Bogaert, S., Claerhout, S., Bulcke, R., & Reheul, D. (2015). Efficacy and reduced fuel use for hot water weed control on pavements. WEED RESEARCH, 55(2), 195–205.
Vancouver
1.
De Cauwer B, Bogaert S, Claerhout S, Bulcke R, Reheul D. Efficacy and reduced fuel use for hot water weed control on pavements. WEED RESEARCH. 2015;55(2):195–205.
MLA
De Cauwer, Benny, S Bogaert, Sofie Claerhout, et al. “Efficacy and Reduced Fuel Use for Hot Water Weed Control on Pavements.” WEED RESEARCH 55.2 (2015): 195–205. Print.
@article{7071809,
  abstract     = {Non-chemical weed control on pavements needs more frequently repeated treatments than the application of glyphosate and often uses large amounts of fuel. To obtain effective hot water control with minimum energy consumption, an in-depth study of efficacy-influencing factors was performed. Three dose-response pot experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate the impact of growth stage (39, 60 and 81day old), water temperature (78, 88 and 98 degrees C), time of the day (2, 7 and 12h after sunrise) and treatment interval (2, 3, 4 and 6week intervals) on hot water sensitivity of seven weed species that are hard to control on pavements. Responses to hot water were quantified by weed coverage and total dry biomass. In general, hot water sensitivity was highest for species with large planophile leaves and lowest for grasses with small erectophile leaves. Most species were twofold to sixfold more sensitive to water at 98 degrees C than at 78 and 88 degrees C, particularly when treated at early growth stages. Among treatment intervals, treating at 3-week intervals was up to twofold more effective and energy efficient than treating at 6-week intervals. Sensitivity was about twofold lower in the morning than in the afternoon. For effective control of weeds, while using less fuel, it is recommended to apply hot water in the late afternoon, to operate at high water temperature (98 degrees C) and to treat plants as young as possible at 3-week intervals.},
  author       = {De Cauwer, Benny and Bogaert, S and Claerhout, Sofie and Bulcke, Robert and Reheul, Dirk},
  issn         = {0043-1737},
  journal      = {WEED RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {water temperature,energy dose,time of the day,TRAFFIC ISLANDS,HARD SURFACES,TEMPERATURE,thermal weed control,hot water,hard surfaces,dose-response,treatment interval},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {195--205},
  title        = {Efficacy and reduced fuel use for hot water weed control on pavements},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wre.12132},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2015},
}

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