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Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project

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Abstract
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Keywords
TWINNING RATES, MATERNAL HEIGHT, INSULIN-SECRETION, LATE ADOLESCENCE, zygosity differences, twins, BMI

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MLA
Jelenkovic, Aline et al. “Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins from Infancy to Old Age: a Study of the CODATwins Project.” TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS 18.5 (2015): 557–570. Print.
APA
Jelenkovic, A., Yokoyama, Y., Sund, R., Honda, C., Bogl, L. H., Aaltonen, S., Ji, F., et al. (2015). Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project. TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS, 18(5), 557–570.
Chicago author-date
Jelenkovic, Aline, Yoshie Yokoyama, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Leonie H Bogl, Sari Aaltonen, Fuling Ji, et al. 2015. “Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins from Infancy to Old Age: a Study of the CODATwins Project.” Twin Research and Human Genetics 18 (5): 557–570.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jelenkovic, Aline, Yoshie Yokoyama, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Leonie H Bogl, Sari Aaltonen, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Christian Kandler, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Kimberly J Saudino, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Claire MA Haworth, Robert Plomin, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D’Ippolito, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Sisira H Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Timothy Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Duarte L Freitas, José Antonio Maia, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Bia Kim, Youngsook Chong, Changhee Hong, Hyun Jung Shin, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Catherine Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth JF Loos, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Mingguang He, Xiaohu Ding, Billy Chang, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Kelly Aujard, Patrik KE Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Yun-Mi Song, Sarah Yang, Kayoung Lee, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Kauko Heikkila, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Kerry L Jang, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, Paul Lichtenstein, Robert F Krueger, Matt Mcgue, Shandell Pahlen, Per Tynelius, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, Syuichi Ooki, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Fujio Inui, Mikio Watanabe, Meike Bartels, Toos CEM van Beijsterveldt, Jane Wardle, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Esther Rebato, Nicholas G Martin, Yoshinori Iwatani, Kazuo Hayakawa, Joohon Sung, Jennifer R Harris, Gonneke Willemsen, Andreas Busjahn, Jack H Goldberg, Finn Rasmussen, Yoon-Mi Hur, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild IA Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen. 2015. “Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins from Infancy to Old Age: a Study of the CODATwins Project.” Twin Research and Human Genetics 18 (5): 557–570.
Vancouver
1.
Jelenkovic A, Yokoyama Y, Sund R, Honda C, Bogl LH, Aaltonen S, et al. Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project. TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS. 2015;18(5):557–70.
IEEE
[1]
A. Jelenkovic et al., “Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project,” TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 557–570, 2015.
@article{7068406,
  abstract     = {{A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.}},
  author       = {{Jelenkovic, Aline and Yokoyama, Yoshie and Sund, Reijo and Honda, Chika and Bogl, Leonie H and Aaltonen, Sari and Ji, Fuling and Ning, Feng and Pang, Zengchang and Ordoñana, Juan R and Sánchez-Romera, Juan F and Colodro-Conde, Lucia and Burt, S Alexandra and Klump, Kelly L and Medland, Sarah E and Montgomery, Grant W and Kandler, Christian and McAdams, Tom A and Eley, Thalia C and Gregory, Alice M and Saudino, Kimberly J and Dubois, Lise and Boivin, Michel and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Haworth, Claire MA and Plomin, Robert and Öncel, Sevgi Y and Aliev, Fazil and Stazi, Maria A and Fagnani, Corrado and D'Ippolito, Cristina and Craig, Jeffrey M and Saffery, Richard and Siribaddana, Sisira H and Hotopf, Matthew and Sumathipala, Athula and Rijsdijk, Fruhling and Spector, Timothy and Mangino, Massimo and Lachance, Genevieve and Gatz, Margaret and Butler, David A and Bayasgalan, Gombojav and Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol and Freitas, Duarte L and Maia, José Antonio and Harden, K Paige and Tucker-Drob, Elliot M and Kim, Bia and Chong, Youngsook and Hong, Changhee and Shin, Hyun Jung and Christensen, Kaare and Skytthe, Axel and Kyvik, Kirsten O and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F and Loos, Ruth JF and Cozen, Wendy and Hwang, Amie E and Mack, Thomas M and He, Mingguang and Ding, Xiaohu and Chang, Billy and Silberg, Judy L and Eaves, Lindon J and Maes, Hermine H and Cutler, Tessa L and Hopper, John L and Aujard, Kelly and Magnusson, Patrik KE and Pedersen, Nancy L and Aslan, Anna K Dahl and Song, Yun-Mi and Yang, Sarah and Lee, Kayoung and Baker, Laura A and Tuvblad, Catherine and Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten and Beck-Nielsen, Henning and Sodemann, Morten and Heikkila, Kauko and Tan, Qihua and Zhang, Dongfeng and Swan, Gary E and Krasnow, Ruth and Jang, Kerry L and Knafo-Noam, Ariel and Mankuta, David and Abramson, Lior and Lichtenstein, Paul and Krueger, Robert F and Mcgue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Tynelius, Per and Duncan, Glen E and Buchwald, Dedra and Corley, Robin P and Huibregtse, Brooke M and Nelson, Tracy L and Whitfield, Keith E and Franz, Carol E and Kremen, William S and Lyons, Michael J and Ooki, Syuichi and Brandt, Ingunn and Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius and Inui, Fujio and Watanabe, Mikio and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM and Wardle, Jane and Llewellyn, Clare H and Fisher, Abigail and Rebato, Esther and Martin, Nicholas G and Iwatani, Yoshinori and Hayakawa, Kazuo and Sung, Joohon and Harris, Jennifer R and Willemsen, Gonneke and Busjahn, Andreas and Goldberg, Jack H and Rasmussen, Finn and Hur, Yoon-Mi and Boomsma, Dorret I and Sørensen, Thorkild IA and Kaprio, Jaakko and Silventoinen, Karri}},
  issn         = {{1832-4274}},
  journal      = {{TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS}},
  keywords     = {{TWINNING RATES,MATERNAL HEIGHT,INSULIN-SECRETION,LATE ADOLESCENCE,zygosity differences,twins,BMI}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{557--570}},
  title        = {{Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2015.57}},
  volume       = {{18}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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