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Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium

(2016) AVIAN PATHOLOGY. 45(2). p.244-252
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Abstract
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian Mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. In addition, the prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several EU member states. We investigated the prevalence of M. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (Order Anseriformes, Galliformes, Pelecaniformes, Accipitriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Falconiformes and Passeriformes). Broilers and wild birds were also evaluated for M. synoviae. Dependent on the bird lifespan and the nature of the sample, different diagnostic tests were used including the rapid plate agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction. A low prevalence of M. gallisepticum was found in both layers (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.7-1.2%) and broilers (2.7%; 95%CI: 1.9-3.8%) possibly due to reduced vertical transmission by breeder farms, which are under official surveillance. None of the samples from turkeys or racing pigeons tested positive. In wild birds, we found five birds were positive (1.7%; 95%CI: 0.7-3.9%): one wood pigeon, two grey herons, one mallard and one Eurasian magpie. For M. synoviae a high prevalence was found in broilers (12.9%: 95%CI: 11.1-14.9%). Four samples collected by hunters gave a positive result for M. synoviae (4%: 95%CI: 1.6-9.8%): one carrion crow and three wood pigeons. In addition 12 house sparrows were found to be positive (3%; 95%CI: 1.7-5.2%). Wild birds probably play a limited role as a reservoir but we cannot exclude a possible impact on transmission of Mycoplasmas.
Keywords
real-time PCR, prevalence, ELISA, chickens, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, IN-HOUSE FINCHES, RESPIRATORY-DISEASE, SEROLOGICAL SURVEY, INFECTION, PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, PATHOGENS, VIRULENCE, CHICKENS, STRAIN

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Citation

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Chicago
Michiels, Tinne, Sarah Welby, Mia Vanrobaeys, Christian Quinet, Lieze Rouffaer, Luc Lens, An Martel, and Patrick Butaye. 2016. “Prevalence of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum and Mycoplasma Synoviae in Commercial Poultry, Racing Pigeons and Wild Birds in Belgium.” Avian Pathology 45 (2): 244–252.
APA
Michiels, Tinne, Welby, S., Vanrobaeys, M., Quinet, C., Rouffaer, L., Lens, L., Martel, A., et al. (2016). Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium. AVIAN PATHOLOGY, 45(2), 244–252.
Vancouver
1.
Michiels T, Welby S, Vanrobaeys M, Quinet C, Rouffaer L, Lens L, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium. AVIAN PATHOLOGY. 2016;45(2):244–52.
MLA
Michiels, Tinne, Sarah Welby, Mia Vanrobaeys, et al. “Prevalence of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum and Mycoplasma Synoviae in Commercial Poultry, Racing Pigeons and Wild Birds in Belgium.” AVIAN PATHOLOGY 45.2 (2016): 244–252. Print.
@article{7066279,
  abstract     = {Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian Mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. In addition, the prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several EU member states. We investigated the prevalence of M. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (Order Anseriformes, Galliformes, Pelecaniformes, Accipitriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Falconiformes and Passeriformes). Broilers and wild birds were also evaluated for M. synoviae. Dependent on the bird lifespan and the nature of the sample, different diagnostic tests were used including the rapid plate agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction. A low prevalence of M. gallisepticum was found in both layers (0.9\%; 95\%CI: 0.7-1.2\%) and broilers (2.7\%; 95\%CI: 1.9-3.8\%) possibly due to reduced vertical transmission by breeder farms, which are under official surveillance. None of the samples from turkeys or racing pigeons tested positive. In wild birds, we found five birds were positive (1.7\%; 95\%CI: 0.7-3.9\%): one wood pigeon, two grey herons, one mallard and one Eurasian magpie. For M. synoviae a high prevalence was found in broilers (12.9\%: 95\%CI: 11.1-14.9\%). Four samples collected by hunters gave a positive result for M. synoviae (4\%: 95\%CI: 1.6-9.8\%): one carrion crow and three wood pigeons. In addition 12 house sparrows were found to be positive (3\%; 95\%CI: 1.7-5.2\%). Wild birds probably play a limited role as a reservoir but we cannot exclude a possible impact on transmission of Mycoplasmas.},
  author       = {Michiels, Tinne and Welby, Sarah and Vanrobaeys, Mia and Quinet, Christian and Rouffaer, Lieze and Lens, Luc and Martel, An and Butaye, Patrick},
  issn         = {0307-9457},
  journal      = {AVIAN PATHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {real-time PCR,prevalence,ELISA,chickens,Mycoplasma synoviae,Mycoplasma gallisepticum,IN-HOUSE FINCHES,RESPIRATORY-DISEASE,SEROLOGICAL SURVEY,INFECTION,PARTRIDGES,PHEASANTS,PATHOGENS,VIRULENCE,CHICKENS,STRAIN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {244--252},
  title        = {Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2016.1145354},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2016},
}

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