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Dust and gas in the Magellanic clouds from the Heritage Herschel key project, I: dust properties and insights into the origin of the submillimeter excess emission

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Abstract
The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 mu m. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 mu m. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 mu m submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 +/- 1.7) x 10(5) and (8.3 +/- 2.1) x 10(4) M-circle dot for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.
Keywords
ISM: general, infrared: ISM, Magellanic clouds, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION, GALAXY EVOLUTION SAGE, CARBON ANALOG GRAINS, INTERSTELLAR DUST, MILKY-WAY, MOLECULAR CLOUDS, LOW-METALLICITY, ABSORPTION-COEFFICIENT, ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION, TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE, infrared: galaxies

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MLA
Gordon, Karl et al. “Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the Heritage Herschel Key Project, I: Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submillimeter Excess Emission.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 797.2 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
Gordon, K., Roman-Duval, J., Bot, C., Meixner, M., Babler, B., Bernard, J.-P., Bolatto, A., et al. (2014). Dust and gas in the Magellanic clouds from the Heritage Herschel key project, I: dust properties and insights into the origin of the submillimeter excess emission. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 797(2).
Chicago author-date
Gordon, Karl, Julia Roman-Duval, Caroline Bot, Margaret Meixner, Brian Babler, Jean-Philippe Bernard, Alberto Bolatto, et al. 2014. “Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the Heritage Herschel Key Project, I: Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submillimeter Excess Emission.” Astrophysical Journal 797 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gordon, Karl, Julia Roman-Duval, Caroline Bot, Margaret Meixner, Brian Babler, Jean-Philippe Bernard, Alberto Bolatto, Martha L Boyer, Geoffrey C Clayton, Charles Engelbracht, Yasuo Fukui, Maud Galametz, Frederic Galliano, Sacha Hony, Annie Hughes, Remy Indebetouw, Frank P Israel, Katherine Jameson, Akiko Kawamura, Vianney Lebouteiller, Aigen Li, Suzanne C Madden, Mikako Matsuura, Karl Misselt, Edward Montiel, K Okumura, Toshikazu Onishi, Pasquale Panuzzo, Deborah Paradis, Monica Rubio, Karin Sandstrom, Marc Sauvage, Jonathan Seale, Marta Sewiło, Kirill Tchernyshyov, and Ramin Skibba. 2014. “Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the Heritage Herschel Key Project, I: Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submillimeter Excess Emission.” Astrophysical Journal 797 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Gordon K, Roman-Duval J, Bot C, Meixner M, Babler B, Bernard J-P, et al. Dust and gas in the Magellanic clouds from the Heritage Herschel key project, I: dust properties and insights into the origin of the submillimeter excess emission. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2014;797(2).
IEEE
[1]
K. Gordon et al., “Dust and gas in the Magellanic clouds from the Heritage Herschel key project, I: dust properties and insights into the origin of the submillimeter excess emission,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 797, no. 2, 2014.
@article{7060195,
  abstract     = {The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 mu m. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 mu m. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 mu m submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 +/- 1.7) x 10(5) and (8.3 +/- 2.1) x 10(4) M-circle dot for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.},
  articleno    = {85},
  author       = {Gordon, Karl and Roman-Duval, Julia and Bot, Caroline and Meixner, Margaret and Babler, Brian and Bernard, Jean-Philippe and Bolatto, Alberto and Boyer, Martha L and Clayton, Geoffrey C and Engelbracht, Charles and Fukui, Yasuo and Galametz, Maud and Galliano, Frederic and Hony, Sacha and Hughes, Annie and Indebetouw, Remy and Israel, Frank P and Jameson, Katherine and Kawamura, Akiko and Lebouteiller, Vianney and Li, Aigen and Madden, Suzanne C and Matsuura, Mikako and Misselt, Karl and Montiel, Edward and Okumura, K and Onishi, Toshikazu and Panuzzo, Pasquale and Paradis, Deborah and Rubio, Monica and Sandstrom, Karin and Sauvage, Marc and Seale, Jonathan and Sewiło, Marta and Tchernyshyov, Kirill and Skibba, Ramin},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {ISM: general,infrared: ISM,Magellanic clouds,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION,GALAXY EVOLUTION SAGE,CARBON ANALOG GRAINS,INTERSTELLAR DUST,MILKY-WAY,MOLECULAR CLOUDS,LOW-METALLICITY,ABSORPTION-COEFFICIENT,ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION,TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE,infrared: galaxies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {Dust and gas in the Magellanic clouds from the Heritage Herschel key project, I: dust properties and insights into the origin of the submillimeter excess emission},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/85},
  volume       = {797},
  year         = {2014},
}

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