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H-ATLAS/GAMA : quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry

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Abstract
Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) project, we show that, for galaxy masses above similar or equal to 10(8) M-circle dot, 51 per cent of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in earlytype galaxies (ETGs; Sersic n > 2.5) while 89 per cent of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs; Sersic n < 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the big bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sersic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that similar or equal to 83 per cent of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this value and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.
Keywords
LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS, QUIESCENT GALAXIES, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, HERSCHEL-ATLAS, MU-M, HUBBLE SEQUENCE, SCIENCE DEMONSTRATION PHASE, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, MASS ASSEMBLY GAMA, SIMILAR-TO 2, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: star formation, galaxies: bulges

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Chicago
Eales, Stephen, Andrew Fullard, Matthew Allen, MWL Smith, Ivan Baldry, Nathan Bourne, CJR Clark, et al. 2015. “H-ATLAS/GAMA : Quantifying the Morphological Evolution of the Galaxy Population Using Cosmic Calorimetry.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 452 (4): 3489–3507.
APA
Eales, Stephen, Fullard, A., Allen, M., Smith, M., Baldry, I., Bourne, N., Clark, C., et al. (2015). H-ATLAS/GAMA : quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 452(4), 3489–3507.
Vancouver
1.
Eales S, Fullard A, Allen M, Smith M, Baldry I, Bourne N, et al. H-ATLAS/GAMA : quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2015;452(4):3489–507.
MLA
Eales, Stephen, Andrew Fullard, Matthew Allen, et al. “H-ATLAS/GAMA : Quantifying the Morphological Evolution of the Galaxy Population Using Cosmic Calorimetry.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 452.4 (2015): 3489–3507. Print.
@article{7059575,
  abstract     = {Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) project, we show that, for galaxy masses above similar or equal to 10(8) M-circle dot, 51 per cent of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in earlytype galaxies (ETGs; Sersic n {\textrangle} 2.5) while 89 per cent of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs; Sersic n {\textlangle} 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the big bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sersic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that similar or equal to 83 per cent of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this value and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.},
  author       = {Eales, Stephen and Fullard, Andrew and Allen, Matthew and Smith, MWL and Baldry, Ivan and Bourne, Nathan and Clark, CJR and Driver, Simon and Dunne, Loretta and Dye, Simon and Graham, Alister W and Ibar, Edo and Hopkins, Andrew and Ivison, Rob and Kelvin, Lee S and Maddox, Steve and Maraston, Claudia and Robotham, Aaron SG and Smith, Dan and Taylor, Edward N and Valiante, Elisabetta and van der Werf, Paul and Baes, Maarten and Brough, Sarah and Clements, David and Cooray, Asantha and Gomez, Haley and Loveday, Jon and Phillipps, Steven and Scott, Douglas and Serjeant, Steve},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {3489--3507},
  title        = {H-ATLAS/GAMA : quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1300},
  volume       = {452},
  year         = {2015},
}

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