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Molecular layer deposition of 'titanicone', a titanium-based hybrid material, as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries

(2016) DALTON TRANSACTIONS. 45(3). p.1176-1184
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Abstract
Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of hybrid organic-inorganic thin films called "titanicones" was achieved using tetrakisdimethylaminotitanium (TDMAT) and glycerol (GL) or ethylene glycol (EG) as precursors. For EG, in situ ellipsometry revealed that the film growth initiates, but terminates after only 5 to 10 cycles, probably because both hydroxyls react with the surface. GL has a third hydroxyl group, and in that case steady state growth could be achieved. The GL process displayed self-limiting reactions for both reactants in the temperature range from 80 degrees C to 160 degrees C, with growth rates of 0.9 to 0.2 angstrom per cycle, respectively. Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the hybrid nature of the films, with a carbon atomic concentration of about 20%. From X-ray reflectivity, the density was estimated at 2.2 g cm(-3). A series of films was subjected to water etching and annealing under air or He atmosphere at 500 degrees C. The carbon content of the films was monitored with FTIR and XPS. Almost all carbon was removed from the air annealed and water treated films. The He annealed samples however retained their carbon content. Ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) showed 20% porosity in the water etched samples, but no porosity in the annealed samples. Electrochemical measurements revealed lithium ion activity during cyclic voltammetry in all treated films, while the as-deposited film was inactive. With increasing charge current, the He annealed samples outperformed amorphous and anatase TiO2 references in terms of capacity retention.
Keywords
TICL4, GROWTH, TRIMETHYLALUMINUM, ELLIPSOMETRIC POROSIMETRY, ETHYLENE-GLYCOL, THIN-FILMS

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Chicago
Van de Kerckhove, Kevin, Felix Mattelaer, Davy Deduytsche, Philippe M Vereecken, Jolien Dendooven, and Christophe Detavernier. 2016. “Molecular Layer Deposition of ‘Titanicone’, a Titanium-based Hybrid Material, as an Electrode for Lithium-ion Batteries.” Dalton Transactions 45 (3): 1176–1184.
APA
Van de Kerckhove, K., Mattelaer, F., Deduytsche, D., Vereecken, P. M., Dendooven, J., & Detavernier, C. (2016). Molecular layer deposition of “titanicone”, a titanium-based hybrid material, as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries. DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 45(3), 1176–1184.
Vancouver
1.
Van de Kerckhove K, Mattelaer F, Deduytsche D, Vereecken PM, Dendooven J, Detavernier C. Molecular layer deposition of “titanicone”, a titanium-based hybrid material, as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries. DALTON TRANSACTIONS. 2016;45(3):1176–84.
MLA
Van de Kerckhove, Kevin, Felix Mattelaer, Davy Deduytsche, et al. “Molecular Layer Deposition of ‘Titanicone’, a Titanium-based Hybrid Material, as an Electrode for Lithium-ion Batteries.” DALTON TRANSACTIONS 45.3 (2016): 1176–1184. Print.
@article{7055620,
  abstract     = {Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of hybrid organic-inorganic thin films called {\textacutedbl}titanicones{\textacutedbl} was achieved using tetrakisdimethylaminotitanium (TDMAT) and glycerol (GL) or ethylene glycol (EG) as precursors. For EG, in situ ellipsometry revealed that the film growth initiates, but terminates after only 5 to 10 cycles, probably because both hydroxyls react with the surface. GL has a third hydroxyl group, and in that case steady state growth could be achieved. The GL process displayed self-limiting reactions for both reactants in the temperature range from 80 degrees C to 160 degrees C, with growth rates of 0.9 to 0.2 angstrom per cycle, respectively. Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the hybrid nature of the films, with a carbon atomic concentration of about 20\%. From X-ray reflectivity, the density was estimated at 2.2 g cm(-3). A series of films was subjected to water etching and annealing under air or He atmosphere at 500 degrees C. The carbon content of the films was monitored with FTIR and XPS. Almost all carbon was removed from the air annealed and water treated films. The He annealed samples however retained their carbon content. Ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) showed 20\% porosity in the water etched samples, but no porosity in the annealed samples. Electrochemical measurements revealed lithium ion activity during cyclic voltammetry in all treated films, while the as-deposited film was inactive. With increasing charge current, the He annealed samples outperformed amorphous and anatase TiO2 references in terms of capacity retention.},
  author       = {Van de Kerckhove, Kevin and Mattelaer, Felix and Deduytsche, Davy and Vereecken, Philippe M and Dendooven, Jolien and Detavernier, Christophe},
  issn         = {1477-9226},
  journal      = {DALTON TRANSACTIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1176--1184},
  title        = {Molecular layer deposition of 'titanicone', a titanium-based hybrid material, as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5dt03840e},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2016},
}

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