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Precision fertilization requires new techniques for determining the spread pattern of fertilizer spreaders. Because of the accuracy and non-intrusive nature, techniques based on digital image processing are most promising. Using image processing, dynamics of particles leaving the spreader can be determined. Combined with a ballistic flight model, this allows predicting the landing position of individual fertilizer particles. In a first approach, a twodimensional imaging technique was used with small field of view (0.33 m on 0.25 m). In the second approach, a larger field of view (1 m on 1 m) was used. To improve the accuracy of previous technique, binocular stereovision was used to determine three-dimensional information.
Keywords
ballistic flight, fertilizer, cross correlation, Spread pattern, image techniques, MOTION ESTIMATION

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Chicago
Cool, Simon, Jan Pieters, Koen C Mertens , David Nuyttens, Bilal Hijazi, Julien Dubois, Frédéric Cointault, and Jürgen Vangeyte. 2015. “Image Based Techniques for Determining Spread Patterns of Centrifugal Fertilizer Spreaders.” In Farm Machinery and Processes Management in Sustainable Agriculture, ed. Bruno Huyghebaert, Edmund Lorencowicz, and Jacek Uziak, 7:59–63. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
APA
Cool, Simon, Pieters, J., Mertens , K. C., Nuyttens, D., Hijazi, B., Dubois, J., Cointault, F., et al. (2015). Image based techniques for determining spread patterns of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders. In B. Huyghebaert, E. Lorencowicz, & J. Uziak (Eds.), Farm machinery and processes management in sustainable agriculture (Vol. 7, pp. 59–63). Presented at the 7th International scientific symposium on Farm Machinery and Processes Management in Sustainable Agriculture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Vancouver
1.
Cool S, Pieters J, Mertens KC, Nuyttens D, Hijazi B, Dubois J, et al. Image based techniques for determining spread patterns of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders. In: Huyghebaert B, Lorencowicz E, Uziak J, editors. Farm machinery and processes management in sustainable agriculture. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2015. p. 59–63.
MLA
Cool, Simon, Jan Pieters, Koen C Mertens , et al. “Image Based Techniques for Determining Spread Patterns of Centrifugal Fertilizer Spreaders.” Farm Machinery and Processes Management in Sustainable Agriculture. Ed. Bruno Huyghebaert, Edmund Lorencowicz, & Jacek Uziak. Vol. 7. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2015. 59–63. Print.
@inproceedings{7044613,
  abstract     = {Precision fertilization requires new techniques for determining the spread pattern of fertilizer spreaders. Because of the accuracy and non-intrusive nature, techniques based on digital image processing are most promising. Using image processing, dynamics of particles leaving the spreader can be determined. Combined with a ballistic flight model, this allows predicting the landing position of individual fertilizer particles. In a first approach, a twodimensional imaging technique was used with small field of view (0.33 m on 0.25 m). In the second approach, a larger field of view (1 m on 1 m) was used. To improve the accuracy of previous technique, binocular stereovision was used to determine three-dimensional information.},
  author       = {Cool, Simon and Pieters, Jan and Mertens , Koen C and Nuyttens, David and Hijazi, Bilal and Dubois, Julien and Cointault, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Vangeyte, J{\"u}rgen},
  booktitle    = {Farm machinery and processes management in sustainable agriculture},
  editor       = {Huyghebaert, Bruno and Lorencowicz, Edmund and Uziak, Jacek},
  issn         = {2210-7843},
  keyword      = {ballistic flight,fertilizer,cross correlation,Spread pattern,image techniques,MOTION ESTIMATION},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Gembloux, Belgium},
  pages        = {59--63},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  title        = {Image based techniques for determining spread patterns of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.12.032},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2015},
}

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