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Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: a cross-sectional study

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Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.
Keywords
psychosocial risk factors, sickness presence, bullying, job stress, work-family conflict, workload, SERIOUS CORONARY EVENTS, TERM SICKNESS ABSENCE, RISK-FACTOR, PRODUCTIVITY LOSS, HEALTH CONDITIONS, FAMILY CONFLICT, WHITEHALL-II, WORKPLACE, ATTENDANCE, EMPLOYEES

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Chicago
Janssens, Heidi, Els Clays, Bart De Clercq, Dirk De Bacquer, Analisa Casini, France Kittel, and Lutgart Braeckman. 2016. “Association Between Psychosocial Characteristics of Work and Presenteeism: a Cross-sectional Study.” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 29 (2): 331–344.
APA
Janssens, H., Clays, E., De Clercq, B., De Bacquer, D., Casini, A., Kittel, F., & Braeckman, L. (2016). Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: a cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 29(2), 331–344.
Vancouver
1.
Janssens H, Clays E, De Clercq B, De Bacquer D, Casini A, Kittel F, et al. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: a cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. 2016;29(2):331–44.
MLA
Janssens, Heidi et al. “Association Between Psychosocial Characteristics of Work and Presenteeism: a Cross-sectional Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 29.2 (2016): 331–344. Print.
@article{7024726,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted.
RESULTS: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results.
CONCLUSIONS: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.},
  author       = {Janssens, Heidi and Clays, Els and De Clercq, Bart and De Bacquer, Dirk and Casini, Analisa and Kittel, France and Braeckman, Lutgart},
  issn         = {1232-1087},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH},
  keywords     = {psychosocial risk factors,sickness presence,bullying,job stress,work-family conflict,workload,SERIOUS CORONARY EVENTS,TERM SICKNESS ABSENCE,RISK-FACTOR,PRODUCTIVITY LOSS,HEALTH CONDITIONS,FAMILY CONFLICT,WHITEHALL-II,WORKPLACE,ATTENDANCE,EMPLOYEES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {331--344},
  title        = {Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: a cross-sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00588},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2016},
}

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