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Simultaneous detection of androgen and estrogen abuse in breeding animals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) evaluated against alternative methods

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Abstract
The administration of synthetic homologues of naturally occurring steroids can be demonstrated by measuring C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios of their urinary metabolites. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) was used in this study to appraise in a global approach isotopic deviations of two 17 beta-testosterone metabolites (17 alpha-testosterone and etiocholanolone) and one 17 beta-estradiol metabolite (17 alpha-estradiol) together with those of 5-androstene-3 beta,17 alpha-diol as endogenous reference compound (ERC). Intermediate precisions of 0.35 parts per thousand, 1.05 parts per thousand, 0.35 parts per thousand, and 0.21 parts per thousand, respectively, were observed (n = 8). To assess the performance of the analytical method, a bull and a heifer were treated with 17 beta-testosterone propionate and 17 beta-estradiol-3-benzoate. The sensitivity of the method permitted the demonstration of 17 beta-estradiol treatment up to 24 days. For 17 beta-testosterone treatment, the detection windows were 3 days and 24 days for the bull and the heifer, respectively. The capability of GC-MS/C/IRMS to demonstrate natural steroid abuse for urinary steroids was eventually compared to those of mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) when measuring intact steroid esters in blood and hair.
Keywords
steroids, natural hormones, GC-MS/C/IRMS, estradiol, testosterone, urine, bovine, food safety, fraud, CARBON-ISOTOPE ANALYSIS, TESTOSTERONE PREPARATIONS, REFERENCE POPULATION, C-13/C-12 RATIOS, BOVINE URINE, CATTLE, STEROIDS, HAIR, 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL, METABOLITES

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MLA
Janssens, Geert et al. “Simultaneous Detection of Androgen and Estrogen Abuse in Breeding Animals by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry/combustion/isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) Evaluated Against Alternative Methods.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 63.34 (2015): 7574–7581. Print.
APA
Janssens, G., Mangelinckx, S., Courtheyn, D., De Kimpe, N., Matthijs, B., & Le Bizec, B. (2015). Simultaneous detection of androgen and estrogen abuse in breeding animals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) evaluated against alternative methods. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 63(34), 7574–7581.
Chicago author-date
Janssens, Geert, Sven Mangelinckx, Dirk Courtheyn, Norbert De Kimpe, Bert Matthijs, and Bruno Le Bizec. 2015. “Simultaneous Detection of Androgen and Estrogen Abuse in Breeding Animals by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry/combustion/isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) Evaluated Against Alternative Methods.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (34): 7574–7581.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Janssens, Geert, Sven Mangelinckx, Dirk Courtheyn, Norbert De Kimpe, Bert Matthijs, and Bruno Le Bizec. 2015. “Simultaneous Detection of Androgen and Estrogen Abuse in Breeding Animals by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry/combustion/isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) Evaluated Against Alternative Methods.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (34): 7574–7581.
Vancouver
1.
Janssens G, Mangelinckx S, Courtheyn D, De Kimpe N, Matthijs B, Le Bizec B. Simultaneous detection of androgen and estrogen abuse in breeding animals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) evaluated against alternative methods. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2015;63(34):7574–81.
IEEE
[1]
G. Janssens, S. Mangelinckx, D. Courtheyn, N. De Kimpe, B. Matthijs, and B. Le Bizec, “Simultaneous detection of androgen and estrogen abuse in breeding animals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) evaluated against alternative methods,” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 63, no. 34, pp. 7574–7581, 2015.
@article{7017287,
  abstract     = {The administration of synthetic homologues of naturally occurring steroids can be demonstrated by measuring C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios of their urinary metabolites. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) was used in this study to appraise in a global approach isotopic deviations of two 17 beta-testosterone metabolites (17 alpha-testosterone and etiocholanolone) and one 17 beta-estradiol metabolite (17 alpha-estradiol) together with those of 5-androstene-3 beta,17 alpha-diol as endogenous reference compound (ERC). Intermediate precisions of 0.35 parts per thousand, 1.05 parts per thousand, 0.35 parts per thousand, and 0.21 parts per thousand, respectively, were observed (n = 8). To assess the performance of the analytical method, a bull and a heifer were treated with 17 beta-testosterone propionate and 17 beta-estradiol-3-benzoate. The sensitivity of the method permitted the demonstration of 17 beta-estradiol treatment up to 24 days. For 17 beta-testosterone treatment, the detection windows were 3 days and 24 days for the bull and the heifer, respectively. The capability of GC-MS/C/IRMS to demonstrate natural steroid abuse for urinary steroids was eventually compared to those of mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) when measuring intact steroid esters in blood and hair.},
  author       = {Janssens, Geert and Mangelinckx, Sven and Courtheyn, Dirk and De Kimpe, Norbert and Matthijs, Bert and Le Bizec, Bruno},
  issn         = {0021-8561},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY},
  keywords     = {steroids,natural hormones,GC-MS/C/IRMS,estradiol,testosterone,urine,bovine,food safety,fraud,CARBON-ISOTOPE ANALYSIS,TESTOSTERONE PREPARATIONS,REFERENCE POPULATION,C-13/C-12 RATIOS,BOVINE URINE,CATTLE,STEROIDS,HAIR,17-BETA-ESTRADIOL,METABOLITES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {34},
  pages        = {7574--7581},
  title        = {Simultaneous detection of androgen and estrogen abuse in breeding animals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) evaluated against alternative methods},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02746},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2015},
}

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