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The post-inner cell mass intermediate : implications for stem cell biology and assisted reproductive technology

(2015) HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE. 21(5). p.616-626
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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the temporal events that precede the generation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their equivalence with specific developmental stages in vivo was poorly understood. Our group has discovered the existence of a transient epiblast-like structure, coined the post-inner cell mass (ICM) intermediate or PICMI, that emerges before human ESC (hESCs) are established, which supports their primed nature (i.e. already showing some predispositions towards certain cell types) of pluripotency. METHODS: The PICMI results from the progressive epithelialization of the ICM and it expresses a mixture of early and late epiblast markers, as well as some primordial germ cell markers. The PICMI is a closer progenitor of hESCs than the ICM and it can be seen as the first proof of why all existing hESCs, until recently, display a primed state of pluripotency. RESULTS: Even though the pluripotent characteristics of ESCs differ from mouse (naive) to human (primed), it has recently been shown in mice that a similar process of self-organization at the transition from ICM to (naive) mouse ESCs (mESCs) transforms the amorphous ICM into a rosette of polarized epiblast cells, a mouse PICMI. The transient PICMI stage is therefore at the origin of both mESCs and hESCs. In addition, several groups have now reported the conversion from primed to the naive (mESCs-like) hESCs, broadening the pluripotency spectrum and opening new opportunities for the use of pluripotent stem cells. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we discuss the recent discoveries of mouse and human transient states from ICM to ESCs and their relation towards the state of pluripotency in the eventual stem cells, being naive or primed. We will now further investigate how these intermediate and/or different pluripotent stages may impact the use of human stem cells in regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technology.
Keywords
pluripotent states, post-inner cell mass intermediate, embryonic stem cells, regenerative medicine, MOUSE EMBRYOS, GROUND-STATE, PRIMED PLURIPOTENCY, QUALITY BLASTOCYSTS, VISCERAL ENDODERM, GENE-EXPRESSION, GERM-CELLS, EPIBLAST, DERIVATION, DIFFERENTIATION

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MLA
Van der Jeught, Margot, et al. “The Post-Inner Cell Mass Intermediate : Implications for Stem Cell Biology and Assisted Reproductive Technology.” HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE, vol. 21, no. 5, 2015, pp. 616–26, doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv028.
APA
Van der Jeught, M., O’Leary, T., Duggal, G., De Sutter, P., Chuva de Sousa Lopes, S. M., & Heindryckx, B. (2015). The post-inner cell mass intermediate : implications for stem cell biology and assisted reproductive technology. HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE, 21(5), 616–626. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmv028
Chicago author-date
Van der Jeught, Margot, Thomas O’Leary, Galbha Duggal, Petra De Sutter, Susana Marina Chuva de Sousa Lopes, and Björn Heindryckx. 2015. “The Post-Inner Cell Mass Intermediate : Implications for Stem Cell Biology and Assisted Reproductive Technology.” HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE 21 (5): 616–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmv028.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van der Jeught, Margot, Thomas O’Leary, Galbha Duggal, Petra De Sutter, Susana Marina Chuva de Sousa Lopes, and Björn Heindryckx. 2015. “The Post-Inner Cell Mass Intermediate : Implications for Stem Cell Biology and Assisted Reproductive Technology.” HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE 21 (5): 616–626. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv028.
Vancouver
1.
Van der Jeught M, O’Leary T, Duggal G, De Sutter P, Chuva de Sousa Lopes SM, Heindryckx B. The post-inner cell mass intermediate : implications for stem cell biology and assisted reproductive technology. HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE. 2015;21(5):616–26.
IEEE
[1]
M. Van der Jeught, T. O’Leary, G. Duggal, P. De Sutter, S. M. Chuva de Sousa Lopes, and B. Heindryckx, “The post-inner cell mass intermediate : implications for stem cell biology and assisted reproductive technology,” HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 616–626, 2015.
@article{7016582,
  abstract     = {{BACKGROUND: Until recently, the temporal events that precede the generation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their equivalence with specific developmental stages in vivo was poorly understood. Our group has discovered the existence of a transient epiblast-like structure, coined the post-inner cell mass (ICM) intermediate or PICMI, that emerges before human ESC (hESCs) are established, which supports their primed nature (i.e. already showing some predispositions towards certain cell types) of pluripotency. 
METHODS: The PICMI results from the progressive epithelialization of the ICM and it expresses a mixture of early and late epiblast markers, as well as some primordial germ cell markers. The PICMI is a closer progenitor of hESCs than the ICM and it can be seen as the first proof of why all existing hESCs, until recently, display a primed state of pluripotency. 
RESULTS: Even though the pluripotent characteristics of ESCs differ from mouse (naive) to human (primed), it has recently been shown in mice that a similar process of self-organization at the transition from ICM to (naive) mouse ESCs (mESCs) transforms the amorphous ICM into a rosette of polarized epiblast cells, a mouse PICMI. The transient PICMI stage is therefore at the origin of both mESCs and hESCs. In addition, several groups have now reported the conversion from primed to the naive (mESCs-like) hESCs, broadening the pluripotency spectrum and opening new opportunities for the use of pluripotent stem cells. 
CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we discuss the recent discoveries of mouse and human transient states from ICM to ESCs and their relation towards the state of pluripotency in the eventual stem cells, being naive or primed. We will now further investigate how these intermediate and/or different pluripotent stages may impact the use of human stem cells in regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technology.}},
  author       = {{Van der Jeught, Margot and O'Leary, Thomas and Duggal, Galbha and De Sutter, Petra and Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana Marina and Heindryckx, Björn}},
  issn         = {{1355-4786}},
  journal      = {{HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE}},
  keywords     = {{pluripotent states,post-inner cell mass intermediate,embryonic stem cells,regenerative medicine,MOUSE EMBRYOS,GROUND-STATE,PRIMED PLURIPOTENCY,QUALITY BLASTOCYSTS,VISCERAL ENDODERM,GENE-EXPRESSION,GERM-CELLS,EPIBLAST,DERIVATION,DIFFERENTIATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{616--626}},
  title        = {{The post-inner cell mass intermediate : implications for stem cell biology and assisted reproductive technology}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmv028}},
  volume       = {{21}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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