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Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal during anaerobic treatment : a review

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Abstract
High sulfide concentrations in biogas are a major problem associated with the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich substrates. It causes the corrosion of concrete and steel, compromises the functions of cogeneration units, produces the emissions of unpleasant odors, and is toxic to humans. Microaeration, i.e. the dosing of small amounts of air (oxygen) into an anaerobic digester, is a highly efficient, simple and economically feasible technique for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas. Due to microaeration, sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur by the action of sulfide oxidizing bacteria. This process takes place directly in the digester. This paper reviews the most important aspects and recent developments of microaeration technology. It describes the basic principles (microbiology, chemistry) of microaeration and the key technological factors influencing microaeration. Other aspects such as process economy, mathematical modelling and control strategies are discussed as well. Besides its advantages, the limitations of microaeration such as partial oxidation of soluble substrate, clogging the walls and pipes with elemental sulfur or toxicity to methanogens are pointed out as well. An integrated mathematical model describing microaeration has not been developed so far and remains an important research gap.
Keywords
Biogas, Anaerobic digestion, Elemental sulfur, Microaeration, Sulfide oxidizing bacteria, Hydrogen sulfide removal, SULFATE WASTE-WATER, BIOLOGICALLY-PRODUCED SULFUR, OXYGEN-LIMITED CONDITIONS, MUNICIPAL SOLID-WASTE, FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR, THIOBACILLUS-THIOPARUS, MICRO-AERATION, SEWAGE-SLUDGE, MICROAEROBIC CONDITIONS, GRANULAR SLUDGE

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MLA
Pokorná, Lucie, et al. “Microaeration for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal during Anaerobic Treatment : A Review.” REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY, vol. 14, no. 4, 2015, pp. 703–25.
APA
Pokorná, L., Bartacek, J., Díaz, I., Jeison, D., Volcke, E., & Jenicek, P. (2015). Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal during anaerobic treatment : a review. REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY, 14(4), 703–725.
Chicago author-date
Pokorná, Lucie, Jan Bartacek, Israel Díaz, David Jeison, Eveline Volcke, and Pavel Jenicek. 2015. “Microaeration for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal during Anaerobic Treatment : A Review.” REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY 14 (4): 703–25.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pokorná, Lucie, Jan Bartacek, Israel Díaz, David Jeison, Eveline Volcke, and Pavel Jenicek. 2015. “Microaeration for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal during Anaerobic Treatment : A Review.” REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY 14 (4): 703–725.
Vancouver
1.
Pokorná L, Bartacek J, Díaz I, Jeison D, Volcke E, Jenicek P. Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal during anaerobic treatment : a review. REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY. 2015;14(4):703–25.
IEEE
[1]
L. Pokorná, J. Bartacek, I. Díaz, D. Jeison, E. Volcke, and P. Jenicek, “Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal during anaerobic treatment : a review,” REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 703–725, 2015.
@article{7003996,
  abstract     = {High sulfide concentrations in biogas are a major problem associated with the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich substrates. It causes the corrosion of concrete and steel, compromises the functions of cogeneration units, produces the emissions of unpleasant odors, and is toxic to humans. Microaeration, i.e. the dosing of small amounts of air (oxygen) into an anaerobic digester, is a highly efficient, simple and economically feasible technique for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas. Due to microaeration, sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur by the action of sulfide oxidizing bacteria. This process takes place directly in the digester. This paper reviews the most important aspects and recent developments of microaeration technology. It describes the basic principles (microbiology, chemistry) of microaeration and the key technological factors influencing microaeration. Other aspects such as process economy, mathematical modelling and control strategies are discussed as well. Besides its advantages, the limitations of microaeration such as partial oxidation of soluble substrate, clogging the walls and pipes with elemental sulfur or toxicity to methanogens are pointed out as well. An integrated mathematical model describing microaeration has not been developed so far and remains an important research gap.},
  author       = {Pokorná, Lucie and Bartacek, Jan and Díaz, Israel and Jeison, David and Volcke, Eveline and Jenicek, Pavel},
  issn         = {1569-1705},
  journal      = {REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Biogas,Anaerobic digestion,Elemental sulfur,Microaeration,Sulfide oxidizing bacteria,Hydrogen sulfide removal,SULFATE WASTE-WATER,BIOLOGICALLY-PRODUCED SULFUR,OXYGEN-LIMITED CONDITIONS,MUNICIPAL SOLID-WASTE,FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR,THIOBACILLUS-THIOPARUS,MICRO-AERATION,SEWAGE-SLUDGE,MICROAEROBIC CONDITIONS,GRANULAR SLUDGE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {703--725},
  title        = {Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal during anaerobic treatment : a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11157-015-9386-2},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2015},
}

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