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Factors affecting metal accumulation, mobility and availability in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium)

Gijs Du Laing (UGent) , Annelies Van de Moortel (UGent) , Els Lesage, Filip Tack (UGent) and Marc Verloo (UGent)
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Abstract
We studied factors affecting the accumulation, mobility and availability of metals in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium), both in greenhouse experiments and under field conditions. The surface layer of the intertidal Scheldt sediments was found to be significantly contaminated with trace metals. The metal concentrations can be predicted from clay or organic matter concentrations. They were somewhat higher than predicted at sites within a range of a few kilometres from specific point-sources of metals, whereas they were lower than predicted at sites which are regularly subjected to flooding by high salinity water. In the deeper sediment layers, sulphides seem to play an important role in the metal accumulation. Salts significantly increased the metal mobility in the oxidised sediment layers in the brackish part of the estuary, which was especially observed for cadmium (U). The decomposition of stems and leaves of reed plants and willows in the upper sediment layer was found to both increase and decrease the metal mobility. The concentrations in the reed litter itself increased significantly during decomposition under field conditions. The hydrological regime to which metal-polluted sediments were subjected, affected the metal concentrations in the pore water to an important extent. Flooding increased the mobility of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) and decreased the mobility of Cd, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in a calcareous substrate. Fluctuating hydrological conditions resulted in fluctuating metal concentrations in the pore water. Reduction and oxidation of Fe and Mn, decomposition of carbonates and the formation and re-oxidation of sulphides were hereby the main controlling processes.
Keywords
sediment, wetland, heavy metals, marsh, Estuary, HEAVY-METALS, TRACE-METALS, PHRAGMITES-AUSTRALIS, CONTAMINATED SOILS, ORGANIC-MATTER, RIVER SCHELDT, SURFACE SOILS, PORE-WATER, SEDIMENTS, CADMIUM

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Chicago
Du Laing, Gijs, Annelies Van de Moortel, Els Lesage, Filip Tack, and Marc Verloo. 2008. “Factors Affecting Metal Accumulation, Mobility and Availability in Intertidal Wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium).” In Wastewater Treatment, Plant Dynamics and Management in Constructed and Natural Wetlands, ed. Jan Vymazal, 121–133. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
APA
Du Laing, G., Van de Moortel, A., Lesage, E., Tack, F., & Verloo, M. (2008). Factors affecting metal accumulation, mobility and availability in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium). In J. Vymazal (Ed.), WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PLANT DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTED AND NATURAL WETLANDS (pp. 121–133). Presented at the 6th Workshop on Nutrient Cycling in Natural and Constructed Wetlands, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Vancouver
1.
Du Laing G, Van de Moortel A, Lesage E, Tack F, Verloo M. Factors affecting metal accumulation, mobility and availability in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium). In: Vymazal J, editor. WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PLANT DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTED AND NATURAL WETLANDS. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer; 2008. p. 121–33.
MLA
Du Laing, Gijs et al. “Factors Affecting Metal Accumulation, Mobility and Availability in Intertidal Wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium).” Wastewater Treatment, Plant Dynamics and Management in Constructed and Natural Wetlands. Ed. Jan Vymazal. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2008. 121–133. Print.
@inproceedings{699536,
  abstract     = {We studied factors affecting the accumulation, mobility and availability of metals in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium), both in greenhouse experiments and under field conditions. The surface layer of the intertidal Scheldt sediments was found to be significantly contaminated with trace metals. The metal concentrations can be predicted from clay or organic matter concentrations. They were somewhat higher than predicted at sites within a range of a few kilometres from specific point-sources of metals, whereas they were lower than predicted at sites which are regularly subjected to flooding by high salinity water. In the deeper sediment layers, sulphides seem to play an important role in the metal accumulation. Salts significantly increased the metal mobility in the oxidised sediment layers in the brackish part of the estuary, which was especially observed for cadmium (U). The decomposition of stems and leaves of reed plants and willows in the upper sediment layer was found to both increase and decrease the metal mobility. The concentrations in the reed litter itself increased significantly during decomposition under field conditions. The hydrological regime to which metal-polluted sediments were subjected, affected the metal concentrations in the pore water to an important extent. Flooding increased the mobility of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) and decreased the mobility of Cd, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in a calcareous substrate. Fluctuating hydrological conditions resulted in fluctuating metal concentrations in the pore water. Reduction and oxidation of Fe and Mn, decomposition of carbonates and the formation and re-oxidation of sulphides were hereby the main controlling processes.},
  author       = {Du Laing, Gijs and Van de Moortel, Annelies and Lesage, Els and Tack, Filip and Verloo, Marc},
  booktitle    = {WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PLANT DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTED AND NATURAL WETLANDS},
  editor       = {Vymazal, Jan},
  isbn         = {978-1-4020-8234-4},
  keywords     = {sediment,wetland,heavy metals,marsh,Estuary,HEAVY-METALS,TRACE-METALS,PHRAGMITES-AUSTRALIS,CONTAMINATED SOILS,ORGANIC-MATTER,RIVER SCHELDT,SURFACE SOILS,PORE-WATER,SEDIMENTS,CADMIUM},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Trebon, CZECH REPUBLIC},
  pages        = {121--133},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  title        = {Factors affecting metal accumulation, mobility and availability in intertidal wetlands of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium)},
  year         = {2008},
}

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