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The impact of tinnitus characteristics and associated variables on tinnitus-related handicap

Sofie Degeest (UGent) , Paul Corthals (UGent) , Ingeborg Dhooge (UGent) and Hannah Keppler (UGent)
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Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to determine the characteristics of tinnitus and tinnitus-related variables and explore their possible relationship with tinnitus-related handicap. Methods: Eighty-one patients with chronic tinnitus were included. The study protocol measured hearing status, tinnitus pitch, loudness, maskability and loudness discomfort levels. All patients filled in the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The relationship of each variable with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Five univariables were associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score: loudness discomfort level, subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus awareness, noise intolerance and Hyperacusis Questionnaire score. Multiple regression analysis showed that the Hyperacusis Questionnaire score and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. Conclusion: Hyperacusis and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. Questionnaires on tinnitus and hyperacusis are especially suited to providing additional insight into tinnitus-related handicap and are therefore useful for evaluating tinnitus patients.
Keywords
Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, Quality of Life, PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES, HEARING-LOSS, SEVERITY, QUESTIONNAIRE, HYPERACUSIS, POPULATION, PREVALENCE, DISORDERS, ANNOYANCE, LOUDNESS

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Chicago
Degeest, Sofie, Paul Corthals, Ingeborg Dhooge, and Hannah Keppler. 2016. “The Impact of Tinnitus Characteristics and Associated Variables on Tinnitus-related Handicap.” Journal of Laryngology and Otology 130 (1): 25–31.
APA
Degeest, S., Corthals, P., Dhooge, I., & Keppler, H. (2016). The impact of tinnitus characteristics and associated variables on tinnitus-related handicap. JOURNAL OF LARYNGOLOGY AND OTOLOGY, 130(1), 25–31.
Vancouver
1.
Degeest S, Corthals P, Dhooge I, Keppler H. The impact of tinnitus characteristics and associated variables on tinnitus-related handicap. JOURNAL OF LARYNGOLOGY AND OTOLOGY. 2016;130(1):25–31.
MLA
Degeest, Sofie, Paul Corthals, Ingeborg Dhooge, et al. “The Impact of Tinnitus Characteristics and Associated Variables on Tinnitus-related Handicap.” JOURNAL OF LARYNGOLOGY AND OTOLOGY 130.1 (2016): 25–31. Print.
@article{6992021,
  abstract     = {Objective: This study aimed to determine the characteristics of tinnitus and tinnitus-related variables and explore their possible relationship with tinnitus-related handicap. 
Methods: Eighty-one patients with chronic tinnitus were included. The study protocol measured hearing status, tinnitus pitch, loudness, maskability and loudness discomfort levels. All patients filled in the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The relationship of each variable with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. 
Results: Five univariables were associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score: loudness discomfort level, subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus awareness, noise intolerance and Hyperacusis Questionnaire score. Multiple regression analysis showed that the Hyperacusis Questionnaire score and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. 
Conclusion: Hyperacusis and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. Questionnaires on tinnitus and hyperacusis are especially suited to providing additional insight into tinnitus-related handicap and are therefore useful for evaluating tinnitus patients.},
  author       = {Degeest, Sofie and Corthals, Paul and Dhooge, Ingeborg and Keppler, Hannah},
  issn         = {0022-2151},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF LARYNGOLOGY AND OTOLOGY},
  keyword      = {Tinnitus,Hyperacusis,Quality of Life,PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES,HEARING-LOSS,SEVERITY,QUESTIONNAIRE,HYPERACUSIS,POPULATION,PREVALENCE,DISORDERS,ANNOYANCE,LOUDNESS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {25--31},
  title        = {The impact of tinnitus characteristics and associated variables on tinnitus-related handicap},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215115002716},
  volume       = {130},
  year         = {2016},
}

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