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How does ethnic and non-ethnic victimization by peers and by teachers relate to the school belongingness of ethnic minority students in Flanders, Belgium? An explorative study

Fanny D'hondt (UGent) , Mieke Van Houtte (UGent) and Peter Stevens (UGent)
(2015) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION. 18(4). p.685-701
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Abstract
School belongingness has proven its positive effect on a wide range of outcomes that lead to school success. However, the factors that influence school belongingness received little research attention. Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the impact of ethnic victimization on ethnic minority students’ school belongingness. Hereto, we examine the relative impact of ethnic and non-ethnic victimization, since ethnic minority students belong to a stigmatized social category, which creates unique stressors such as ethnic victimization, but does not spare them from the general stressors that exist in life. Moreover, we approach victimization from a social-ecological perspective. First, by focusing on both victimization by peers and victimization by teachers and second, by taking the ethnic school composition into account. A multilevel analysis on a largescale dataset (N = 1160 ethnic minority students, 54 schools) collected in the third year of secondary education in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) shows that victimization had a negative influence on ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging. Furthermore, the experience of ethnic victimization was more detrimental for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging than the experience of other forms of victimization. Thirdly, it did not matter for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging if they felt victimized by teachers or by peers. Finally, when experiencing ethnic teacher victimization in a school with fewer ethnic minority students, this was more negative for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging than in a school with more ethnic minority students.
Keywords
school belongingness, ethnic discrimination, ethnic minority adolescent, ethnic school composition, MIDDLE SCHOOL, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, ACADEMIC-ACHIEVEMENT, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, ADJUSTMENT, DISCRIMINATION, ADOLESCENTS, PERCEPTIONS, STRESS, SENSE

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MLA
D’hondt, Fanny, et al. “How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study.” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION, vol. 18, no. 4, 2015, pp. 685–701, doi:10.1007/s11218-015-9304-z.
APA
D’hondt, F., Van Houtte, M., & Stevens, P. (2015). How does ethnic and non-ethnic victimization by peers and by teachers relate to the school belongingness of ethnic minority students in Flanders, Belgium? An explorative study. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION, 18(4), 685–701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-015-9304-z
Chicago author-date
D’hondt, Fanny, Mieke Van Houtte, and Peter Stevens. 2015. “How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study.” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION 18 (4): 685–701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-015-9304-z.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
D’hondt, Fanny, Mieke Van Houtte, and Peter Stevens. 2015. “How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study.” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION 18 (4): 685–701. doi:10.1007/s11218-015-9304-z.
Vancouver
1.
D’hondt F, Van Houtte M, Stevens P. How does ethnic and non-ethnic victimization by peers and by teachers relate to the school belongingness of ethnic minority students in Flanders, Belgium? An explorative study. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION. 2015;18(4):685–701.
IEEE
[1]
F. D’hondt, M. Van Houtte, and P. Stevens, “How does ethnic and non-ethnic victimization by peers and by teachers relate to the school belongingness of ethnic minority students in Flanders, Belgium? An explorative study,” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 685–701, 2015.
@article{6985361,
  abstract     = {{School belongingness has proven its positive effect on a wide range of outcomes that lead to school success. However, the factors that influence school belongingness received little research attention. Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the impact of ethnic victimization on ethnic minority students’ school belongingness. Hereto, we examine the relative impact of ethnic and non-ethnic victimization, since ethnic minority students belong to a stigmatized social category, which creates unique stressors such as ethnic victimization, but does not spare them from the general stressors that exist in life. Moreover, we approach victimization from a social-ecological perspective. First, by focusing on both victimization by peers and victimization by teachers and second, by taking the ethnic school composition into account. A multilevel analysis on a largescale dataset (N = 1160 ethnic minority students, 54 schools) collected in the third year of secondary education in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) shows that victimization had a negative influence on ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging. Furthermore, the experience of ethnic victimization was more detrimental for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging than the experience of other forms of victimization. Thirdly, it did not matter for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging if they felt victimized by teachers or by peers. Finally, when experiencing ethnic teacher victimization in a school with fewer ethnic minority students, this was more negative for ethnic minority students’ sense of school belonging than in a school with more ethnic minority students.}},
  author       = {{D'hondt, Fanny and Van Houtte, Mieke and Stevens, Peter}},
  issn         = {{1381-2890}},
  journal      = {{SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION}},
  keywords     = {{school belongingness,ethnic discrimination,ethnic minority adolescent,ethnic school composition,MIDDLE SCHOOL,AFRICAN-AMERICAN,ACADEMIC-ACHIEVEMENT,DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS,ADJUSTMENT,DISCRIMINATION,ADOLESCENTS,PERCEPTIONS,STRESS,SENSE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{685--701}},
  title        = {{How does ethnic and non-ethnic victimization by peers and by teachers relate to the school belongingness of ethnic minority students in Flanders, Belgium? An explorative study}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-015-9304-z}},
  volume       = {{18}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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