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Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros

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Abstract
Despite the worldwide increase of rhinoceros calf numbers, the growth of the population of white and black rhinoceros is slowing down mainly due to anthropogenic causes, such as poaching and habitat loss. Assisted reproduction is one of the methods of preserving the valuable genomes of these animals from being lost, and assists in breeding them in captivity to maintain the specie(s) numbers and provide an option for possible reintroduction into the wild. Since wild rhinoceros are difficult to handle and examine clinically, most of the current information available on their reproductive characteristics has been gained from captive rhinoceros populations. Nevertheless, very little is known about rhinoceros reproduction. Since the rhinoceros belongs to the odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyls) group, like the horse and the tapir, the horse has been proposed as a suitable model to study reproduction and artificial reproductive techniques in the rhinoceros. In this review, the current knowledge of the reproduction of the rhinoceros is summarized.
Keywords
EX COPULA EJACULATION, ELEPHANTS LOXODONTA-AFRICANA, EQUINE EMBRYO-TRANSFER, ESTROUS-CYCLE, ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION, DICERORHINUS-SUMATRENSIS, ARTIFICIAL-INSEMINATION, FECAL PROGESTERONE, CAPTIVE SOUTHERN, SEMEN COLLECTION

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Citation

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MLA
Ververs, Cyrillus et al. “Features of Reproduction and Assisted Reproduction in the White (Ceratotherium Simum) and Black (Diceros Bicornis) Rhinoceros.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 84.4 (2015): 175–187. Print.
APA
Ververs, C., van Zijl Langhout, M., Govaere, J., & Van Soom, A. (2015). Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 84(4), 175–187.
Chicago author-date
Ververs, Cyrillus, M van Zijl Langhout, Jan Govaere, and Ann Van Soom. 2015. “Features of Reproduction and Assisted Reproduction in the White (Ceratotherium Simum) and Black (Diceros Bicornis) Rhinoceros.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 84 (4): 175–187.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ververs, Cyrillus, M van Zijl Langhout, Jan Govaere, and Ann Van Soom. 2015. “Features of Reproduction and Assisted Reproduction in the White (Ceratotherium Simum) and Black (Diceros Bicornis) Rhinoceros.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 84 (4): 175–187.
Vancouver
1.
Ververs C, van Zijl Langhout M, Govaere J, Van Soom A. Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2015;84(4):175–87.
IEEE
[1]
C. Ververs, M. van Zijl Langhout, J. Govaere, and A. Van Soom, “Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros,” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 175–187, 2015.
@article{6974362,
  abstract     = {Despite the worldwide increase of rhinoceros calf numbers, the growth of the population of white and black rhinoceros is slowing down mainly due to anthropogenic causes, such as poaching and habitat loss. Assisted reproduction is one of the methods of preserving the valuable genomes of these animals from being lost, and assists in breeding them in captivity to maintain the specie(s) numbers and provide an option for possible reintroduction into the wild. Since wild rhinoceros are difficult to handle and examine clinically, most of the current information available on their reproductive characteristics has been gained from captive rhinoceros populations. Nevertheless, very little is known about rhinoceros reproduction. Since the rhinoceros belongs to the odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyls) group, like the horse and the tapir, the horse has been proposed as a suitable model to study reproduction and artificial reproductive techniques in the rhinoceros. In this review, the current knowledge of the reproduction of the rhinoceros is summarized.},
  author       = {Ververs, Cyrillus and van Zijl Langhout, M and Govaere, Jan and Van Soom, Ann},
  issn         = {0303-9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  keywords     = {EX COPULA EJACULATION,ELEPHANTS LOXODONTA-AFRICANA,EQUINE EMBRYO-TRANSFER,ESTROUS-CYCLE,ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION,DICERORHINUS-SUMATRENSIS,ARTIFICIAL-INSEMINATION,FECAL PROGESTERONE,CAPTIVE SOUTHERN,SEMEN COLLECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {175--187},
  title        = {Features of reproduction and assisted reproduction in the white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros},
  url          = {http://vdt.ugent.be/sites/default/files/Art%201%20in%20English.pdf},
  volume       = {84},
  year         = {2015},
}

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