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The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy

(2015) ONCOIMMUNOLOGY. 4(10).
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Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor, but uses several immune-suppressive mechanisms to shift the balance from tumor immune response toward tumor growth. Although RCC has traditionally been considered to be radiation resistant, recent evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy contributes to systemic antitumor immunity. Because the efficacy of antitumor immune responses depends on the complex balance between diverse immune cells and progressing tumor cells, radiotherapy alone is unlikely to induce persistent antitumor immunity. Therefore, the combination of radiotherapy with drugs having synergistic immunomodulatory properties holds great promise with the optimal timing and sequence of modalities depending on the agent used. We highlight the immunomodulatory properties of targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibodies, and will suggest a combination schedule with radiotherapy based on the available literature. We also address the combination of radiotherapy with innovative treatments in the field of immunotherapy.
Keywords
radiotherapy, renal cell carcinoma, immunotherapy, antitumor immunity, targeted therapy, treatment combination, REGULATORY T-CELLS, EXTRACRANIAL STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY, TUMOR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES, ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR, IMMUNE ESCAPE MECHANISMS, PHASE-II TRIAL, RADIATION-THERAPY, IONIZING-RADIATION, ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY, SUPPRESSOR-CELLS

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MLA
De Wolf, Katrien, et al. “The Potential of Radiotherapy to Enhance the Efficacy of Renal Cell Carcinoma Therapy.” ONCOIMMUNOLOGY, vol. 4, no. 10, 2015, doi:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1042198.
APA
De Wolf, K., Vermaelen, K., De Meerleer, G., Lambrecht, B., & Ost, P. (2015). The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy. ONCOIMMUNOLOGY, 4(10). https://doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1042198
Chicago author-date
De Wolf, Katrien, Karim Vermaelen, Gert De Meerleer, Bart Lambrecht, and Piet Ost. 2015. “The Potential of Radiotherapy to Enhance the Efficacy of Renal Cell Carcinoma Therapy.” ONCOIMMUNOLOGY 4 (10). https://doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1042198.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Wolf, Katrien, Karim Vermaelen, Gert De Meerleer, Bart Lambrecht, and Piet Ost. 2015. “The Potential of Radiotherapy to Enhance the Efficacy of Renal Cell Carcinoma Therapy.” ONCOIMMUNOLOGY 4 (10). doi:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1042198.
Vancouver
1.
De Wolf K, Vermaelen K, De Meerleer G, Lambrecht B, Ost P. The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy. ONCOIMMUNOLOGY. 2015;4(10).
IEEE
[1]
K. De Wolf, K. Vermaelen, G. De Meerleer, B. Lambrecht, and P. Ost, “The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy,” ONCOIMMUNOLOGY, vol. 4, no. 10, 2015.
@article{6965240,
  abstract     = {{Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor, but uses several immune-suppressive mechanisms to shift the balance from tumor immune response toward tumor growth. Although RCC has traditionally been considered to be radiation resistant, recent evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy contributes to systemic antitumor immunity. Because the efficacy of antitumor immune responses depends on the complex balance between diverse immune cells and progressing tumor cells, radiotherapy alone is unlikely to induce persistent antitumor immunity. Therefore, the combination of radiotherapy with drugs having synergistic immunomodulatory properties holds great promise with the optimal timing and sequence of modalities depending on the agent used. We highlight the immunomodulatory properties of targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibodies, and will suggest a combination schedule with radiotherapy based on the available literature. We also address the combination of radiotherapy with innovative treatments in the field of immunotherapy.}},
  articleno    = {{e1042198}},
  author       = {{De Wolf, Katrien and Vermaelen, Karim and De Meerleer, Gert and Lambrecht, Bart and Ost, Piet}},
  issn         = {{2162-402X}},
  journal      = {{ONCOIMMUNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{radiotherapy,renal cell carcinoma,immunotherapy,antitumor immunity,targeted therapy,treatment combination,REGULATORY T-CELLS,EXTRACRANIAL STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY,TUMOR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES,ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR,IMMUNE ESCAPE MECHANISMS,PHASE-II TRIAL,RADIATION-THERAPY,IONIZING-RADIATION,ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY,SUPPRESSOR-CELLS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1042198}},
  volume       = {{4}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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