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Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula

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Abstract
Since decades, the main goal of tumor immunologists has been to increase the capacity of the immune system to mediate tumor regression. In this regard, one of the major focuses of cancer immunotherapy has been the design of vaccines promoting strong tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in cancer patients. Here, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as they are regarded as nature's adjuvant and as such have become the natural agents for antigen delivery in order to finally elicit strong T cell responses (Villadangos and Schnorrer in Nat Rev Immunol 7:543-555, 2007; Melief in Immunity 29:372-383, 2008; Palucka and Banchereau in Nat Rev Cancer 12:265-277, 2012; Vacchelli et al. in Oncoimmunology 2:e25771, 2013; Galluzzi et al. in Oncoimmunology 1:1111-1134, 2012). Therefore, many investigators are actively pursuing the use of DCs as an efficient way of inducing anticancer immune responses. Nowadays, DCs can be generated at a large scale in closed systems, yielding sufficient numbers of cells for clinical application. In addition, with the identification of tumor-associated antigens, which are either selectively or preferentially expressed by tumors, a whole range of strategies using DCs for immunotherapy have been designed and tested in clinical studies. Despite the evidence that DCs loaded with tumor-associated antigens can elicit immune responses in vivo, clinical responses remained disappointingly low. Therefore, optimization of the cellular product and route of administration was urgently needed. Here, we review the path we have followed in the development of TriMixDC-MEL, a potent DC-based cellular therapy, discussing its development as well as further modifications and applications.
Keywords
THERAPEUTIC VACCINATION, 19th Danish Cancer Society Symposium 2013, T-CELL, Dendritic cell, MESSENGER-RNA ELECTROPORATION, CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY, CD40 LIGAND, MATURATION, IN-VIVO, TUMOR VACCINATION, IMMUNITY, mRNA, CONSTITUTIVELY ACTIVE TLR4, Immunotherapy, Cancer

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Citation

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MLA
Van Lint, Sandra et al. “Optimized Dendritic Cell-based Immunotherapy for Melanoma: The TriMix-formula.” CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY 63.9 (2014): 959–967. Print.
APA
Van Lint, S., Wilgenhof, S., Heirman, C., Corthals, J., Breckpot, K., Bonehill, A., Neyns, B., et al. (2014). Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, 63(9), 959–967.
Chicago author-date
Van Lint, Sandra, Sofie Wilgenhof, Carlo Heirman, Jurgen Corthals, Karine Breckpot, Aude Bonehill, Bart Neyns, and Kris Thielemans. 2014. “Optimized Dendritic Cell-based Immunotherapy for Melanoma: The TriMix-formula.” Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy 63 (9): 959–967.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Lint, Sandra, Sofie Wilgenhof, Carlo Heirman, Jurgen Corthals, Karine Breckpot, Aude Bonehill, Bart Neyns, and Kris Thielemans. 2014. “Optimized Dendritic Cell-based Immunotherapy for Melanoma: The TriMix-formula.” Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy 63 (9): 959–967.
Vancouver
1.
Van Lint S, Wilgenhof S, Heirman C, Corthals J, Breckpot K, Bonehill A, et al. Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY. 2014;63(9):959–67.
IEEE
[1]
S. Van Lint et al., “Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula,” CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 959–967, 2014.
@article{6963469,
  abstract     = {Since decades, the main goal of tumor immunologists has been to increase the capacity of the immune system to mediate tumor regression. In this regard, one of the major focuses of cancer immunotherapy has been the design of vaccines promoting strong tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in cancer patients. Here, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as they are regarded as nature's adjuvant and as such have become the natural agents for antigen delivery in order to finally elicit strong T cell responses (Villadangos and Schnorrer in Nat Rev Immunol 7:543-555, 2007; Melief in Immunity 29:372-383, 2008; Palucka and Banchereau in Nat Rev Cancer 12:265-277, 2012; Vacchelli et al. in Oncoimmunology 2:e25771, 2013; Galluzzi et al. in Oncoimmunology 1:1111-1134, 2012). Therefore, many investigators are actively pursuing the use of DCs as an efficient way of inducing anticancer immune responses. Nowadays, DCs can be generated at a large scale in closed systems, yielding sufficient numbers of cells for clinical application. In addition, with the identification of tumor-associated antigens, which are either selectively or preferentially expressed by tumors, a whole range of strategies using DCs for immunotherapy have been designed and tested in clinical studies. Despite the evidence that DCs loaded with tumor-associated antigens can elicit immune responses in vivo, clinical responses remained disappointingly low. Therefore, optimization of the cellular product and route of administration was urgently needed. Here, we review the path we have followed in the development of TriMixDC-MEL, a potent DC-based cellular therapy, discussing its development as well as further modifications and applications.},
  author       = {Van Lint, Sandra and Wilgenhof, Sofie and Heirman, Carlo and Corthals, Jurgen and Breckpot, Karine and Bonehill, Aude and Neyns, Bart and Thielemans, Kris},
  issn         = {0340-7004},
  journal      = {CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY},
  keywords     = {THERAPEUTIC VACCINATION,19th Danish Cancer Society Symposium 2013,T-CELL,Dendritic cell,MESSENGER-RNA ELECTROPORATION,CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY,CD40 LIGAND,MATURATION,IN-VIVO,TUMOR VACCINATION,IMMUNITY,mRNA,CONSTITUTIVELY ACTIVE TLR4,Immunotherapy,Cancer},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {959--967},
  title        = {Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-014-1558-3},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2014},
}

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