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mRNA: from a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic

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Abstract
Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has proven to be safe, well tolerated and capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, the direct application of mRNA for in situ modification of APCs, hence immunization was shown to be feasible and at least as effective as DC-based immunization in pre-clinical models. It is believed that application of mRNA as an off-the-shelf vaccine represents an important step in the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we will discuss the use of ex vivo mRNA-modified DCs and "naked mRNA" for cancer immunotherapy focusing on parameters such as the employed DC subtype, DC activation stimulus and route of immunization. In addition, we will provide an overview on the clinical trials published so far, trying to link their outcome to the aforementioned parameters.
Keywords
IN-VIVO, CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY, TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-3, LENGTH TUMOR-ANTIGENS, ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC CD8(+), ADVANCED MELANOMA PATIENTS, CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, ELECTROPORATED DENDRITIC CELLS, cancer, immunotherapy, mRNA, dendritic cell, ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY, DIRECT-INJECTION

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MLA
Van Lint, Sandra et al. “mRNA: From a Chemical Blueprint for Protein Production to an Off-the-shelf Therapeutic.” HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS 2013 : 265–274. Print.
APA
Van Lint, S., Heirman, C., Thielemans, K., & Breckpot, K. (2013). mRNA: from a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic. HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS.
Chicago author-date
Van Lint, Sandra, Carlo Heirman, Kris Thielemans, and Karine Breckpot. 2013. “mRNA: From a Chemical Blueprint for Protein Production to an Off-the-shelf Therapeutic.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Lint, Sandra, Carlo Heirman, Kris Thielemans, and Karine Breckpot. 2013. “mRNA: From a Chemical Blueprint for Protein Production to an Off-the-shelf Therapeutic.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.
Vancouver
1.
Van Lint S, Heirman C, Thielemans K, Breckpot K. mRNA: from a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic. HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS. 2013. p. 265–74.
IEEE
[1]
S. Van Lint, C. Heirman, K. Thielemans, and K. Breckpot, “mRNA: from a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic,” HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS, vol. 9, no. 2. pp. 265–274, 2013.
@misc{6963138,
  abstract     = {Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has proven to be safe, well tolerated and capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, the direct application of mRNA for in situ modification of APCs, hence immunization was shown to be feasible and at least as effective as DC-based immunization in pre-clinical models. It is believed that application of mRNA as an off-the-shelf vaccine represents an important step in the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we will discuss the use of ex vivo mRNA-modified DCs and "naked mRNA" for cancer immunotherapy focusing on parameters such as the employed DC subtype, DC activation stimulus and route of immunization. In addition, we will provide an overview on the clinical trials published so far, trying to link their outcome to the aforementioned parameters.},
  author       = {Van Lint, Sandra and Heirman, Carlo and Thielemans, Kris and Breckpot, Karine},
  issn         = {2164-5515},
  keywords     = {IN-VIVO,CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY,TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-3,LENGTH TUMOR-ANTIGENS,ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC CD8(+),ADVANCED MELANOMA PATIENTS,CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES,ELECTROPORATED DENDRITIC CELLS,cancer,immunotherapy,mRNA,dendritic cell,ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY,DIRECT-INJECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {265--274},
  series       = {HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS},
  title        = {mRNA: from a chemical blueprint for protein production to an off-the-shelf therapeutic},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.22661},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2013},
}

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